Mass Killings Under Communist Regimes

Mass Killings Under Communist Regimes

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Mass killings under communist regimes occurred throughout the 20th century. Death estimates vary widely, depending on the definitions of the deaths that are included in them and the political perspectives of those performing such tallies. Estimates account for executions, deaths from man-made and intentional famines, as well as deaths that have occurred during forced labordeportations, or imprisonment.

In addition to mass killings, terms that are used to define such killings include democidepoliticideclassicide, and genocide.


Terminology and usage

See also: Genocide definitions

Several different terms are used to describe the intentional killing of large numbers of noncombatants.[1][a][b][c][d][e] According to Anton Weiss-Wendt, the field of comparative genocide studies has very “little consensus on defining principles such as definition of genocide, typology, application of a comparative method, and timeframe.”[2][f] According to Professor of Economics Attiat Ott, mass killing has emerged as a “more straightforward” term.[g]

The following terminology has been used by individual authors to describe mass killings of unarmed civilians by communist governments, individually or as a whole:

  • Classicide – Professor Michael Mann has proposed classicide to mean the “intended mass killing of entire social classes.”[3][h] Classicide is considered “premeditated mass killing” narrower than genocide in that it targets a part of a population defined by its social status, but broader than politicide in that the group is targeted without regard to their political activity.[4]
  • Crime against humanity – Professor Klas-Göran Karlsson uses crimes against humanity, which includes “the direct mass killings of politically undesirable elements, as well as forced deportations and forced labour.” Karlsson acknowledges that the term may be misleading in the sense that the regimes targeted groups of their own citizens, but he considers it useful as a broad legal term which emphasizes attacks on civilian populations and because the offenses demean humanity as a whole.[5] Historian Jacques Sémelin and Professor Michael Mann[6] believe that crime against humanity is more appropriate than genocide or politicide when speaking of violence by communist regimes.[7] See also: Crimes against humanity under communist regimes.
  • Democide – Professor Rudolph Rummel defined democide as “the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command.”[8] His definition covers a wide range of deaths, including forced labor and concentration camp victims; killings by “unofficial” private groups; extrajudicial summary killings; and mass deaths due to the governmental acts of criminal omission and neglect, such as in deliberate famines as well as killings by de facto governments, such as warlords or rebels in a civil war.[9][i] This definition covers any murder of any number of persons by any government,[10] and it has been applied to killings that were perpetrated by communist regimes.[11][12]
  • Genocide – Under the Genocide Convention, the crime of genocide generally applies to the mass murder of ethnic rather than political or social groups. The clause which granted protection to political groups was eliminated from the United Nations resolution after a second vote because many states, including the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin,[13][j] feared that it could be used to impose unneeded limitations on their right to suppress internal disturbances.[14][15] Scholarly studies of genocide usually acknowledge the UN’s omission of economic and political groups and use mass political killing datasets of democide and genocide and politicide or geno-politicide.[16] The killings that were committed by the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia has been labeled a genocide or an auto-genocide; and the deaths that occurred under Leninism and Stalinism in the Soviet Union, as well as those that occurred under Maoism in China, have been controversially investigated as possible cases. In particular, the Soviet famine of 1932–1933 and the Great Chinese Famine, which occurred during the Great Leap Forward, have both been “depicted as instances of mass killing underpinned by genocidal intent.”[k]
  • Holocaust – communist holocaust has been used by some state officials and non-governmental organizations.[17][18][19] The similar term red Holocaust—coined by the Munich Institut für Zeitgeschichte[l][20]—has been used by Professor Steven Rosefielde for communist “peacetime state killings,” while stating that it “could be defined to include all murders (judicially sanctioned terror-executions), criminal manslaughter (lethal forced labor and ethnic cleansing), and felonious negligent homicide (terror-starvation) incurred from insurrectionary actions and civil wars prior to state seizure, and all subsequent felonious state killings.”[m] According to Jörg Hackmann, this term is not popular among scholars in Germany or internationally.[l] Alexandra Laignel-Lavastine writes that usage of this term “allows the reality it describes to immediately attain, in the Western mind, a status equal to that of the extermination of the Jews by the Nazi regime.”[n][21] Michael Shafir writes that the use of the term supports the “competitive martyrdom component of Double Genocide“, a theory whose worst version is Holocaust obfuscation.[22] George Voicu states that Leon Volovici has “rightfully condemned the abusive use of this concept as an attempt to ‘usurp’ and undermine a symbol specific to the history of European Jews.”[o]
  • Mass killing – Professor Ervin Staub defined mass killing as “killing members of a group without the intention to eliminate the whole group or killing large numbers of people without a precise definition of group membership. In a mass killing the number of people killed is usually smaller than in genocide.”[23][p] Referencing earlier definitions,[q] Professors Joan Esteban, Massimo Morelli, and Dominic Rohner have defined mass killings as “the killings of substantial numbers of human beings, when not in the course of military action against the military forces of an avowed enemy, under the conditions of the essential defenselessness and helplessness of the victims.”[24] The term has been defined by Professor Benjamin Valentino as “the intentional killing of a massive number of noncombatants”, where a “massive number” is defined as at least 50,000 intentional deaths over the course of five years or less.[25] This is the most accepted quantitative minimum threshold for the term.[24] He applied this definition to the cases of Stalin’s Soviet UnionChina under Mao Zedong and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge while admitting that “mass killings on a smaller scale” also appear to have been carried out by regimes in North KoreaVietnamEastern Europe and various nations in Africa.[26] Alongside Valentino, Jay Ulfelder has used a threshold of 1,000 killed.[r] Alex Bellamy states that 14 of the 38 instances of “mass killing since 1945 perpetrated by non-democratic states outside the context of war” were by communist governments.[s] Professors Frank Wayman and Atsushi Tago used mass killing from Valentino and concluded that even with a lower threshold (10,000 killed per year, 1,000 killed per year, or even 1 killed per year) “autocratic regimes, especially communist, are prone to mass killing generically, but not so strongly inclined (i.e. not statistically significantly inclined) toward geno-politicide.”[t] According to Attiat F. Ott and Sang Hoo Bae, there is a general consensus that mass killing constitutes the act of intentionally killing a number of non-combatants, but that number can range from as few as four to more than 50,000 people.[27] Yang Su used a definition of mass killing from Valentino but allows as a “significant number” more than 10 killed in one day in one town.[u] He used collective killing for analysis of mass killing in areas smaller than a whole country that may not meet Valentino’s threshold.[v]
  • Politicide – the term is used to describe the killing of groups that would not otherwise be covered by the Genocide Convention.[28][j] Professor Barbara Harff studies genocide and politicide—sometimes shortened as geno-politicide—in order to include the killing of political, economic, ethnic and cultural groups.[w] Professor Manus I. Midlarsky uses politicide to describe an arc of large-scale killing from the western parts of the Soviet Union to China and Cambodia.[x] In his book The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century, Midlarsky raises similarities between the killings of Stalin and Pol Pot.[29]
  • Repression – Professor Stephen Wheatcroft comments that in the case of the Soviet Union terms such as the terrorthe purges, and repression are used to refer to the same events. He believes the most neutral terms are repression and mass killings, although in Russian the broad concept of repression is commonly held to include mass killings and it is sometimes assumed to be synonymous with it, which is not the case in other languages.[30]


According to professor of history Klas-Göran Karlsson, discussion of the number of victims of communist regimes has been “extremely extensive and ideologically biased.”[31] Political scientist Rudolph Rummel and historian Mark Bradley have written that, while the exact numbers have been in dispute, the order of magnitude is not.[y][z] Rummel and other genocide scholars are focused primarily on establishing patterns and testing various theoretical explanations of genocides and mass killings. In their work, as they are dealing with large data sets that describe mass mortality events globally, they have to rely on selective data provided by country experts, so precise estimates are neither a required nor expected result of their work.[32]

Any attempt to estimate a total number of killings under communist regimes depends greatly on definitions, and the idea to group together different countries such as Afghanistan and Hungary has no adequate explanation.[33] During the Cold War era, some authors (Todd Culberston), dissidents (Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn), and anti-communists in general have attempted to make both country-specific and global estimates, although they were mostly unreliable and inflated, as shown by the 1990s and beyond. Scholars of communism have mainly focused on individual countries, and genocide scholars have attempted to provide a more global perspective, while maintaining that their goal is not reliability but establishing patterns.[32] Scholars of communism have debated on estimates for the Soviet Union, not for all communist regimes, an attempt which was popularized by the introduction to The Black Book of Communism and was controversial.[33] Among them, Soviet specialists Michael Ellman and J. Arch Getty have criticized the estimates for relying on émigre sources, hearsay, and rumor as evidence,[34] and cautioned that historians should instead utilize archive material.[35] Such scholars distinguish between historians who base their research on archive materials, and those whose estimates are based on witnesses evidence and other data that is unreliable.[36] Soviet specialist Stephen G. Wheatcroft says that historians relied on Solzhenitsyn to support their higher estimates but research in the state archives vindicated the lower estimates, while adding that the popular press has continued to include serious errors that should not be cited, or relied on, in academia.[37] Rummel was also another widely used and cited source[aa] but not reliable about estimates.[32]

Notable estimate attempts include the following:[aa]

  • In 1978, journalist Todd Culbertson wrote an article in The Richmond News Leader, republished in Human Events, in which he stated that “[a]vailable evidence indicates that perhaps 100 million persons have been destroyed by the Communists; the imperviousness of the Iron and Bamboo curtains prevents a more definitive figure.”[ab][aa]
  • In 1985, John Lenczowski, director of European and Soviet Affairs at the United States National Security Council, wrote an article in The Christian Science Monitor in which he stated that the “number of people murdered by communist regimes is estimated at between 60 million and 150 million, with the higher figure probably more accurate in light of recent scholarship.”[ac]
  • In 1993, Zbigniew Brzezinski, former National Security Advisor to Jimmy Carter, wrote that “the failed effort to build communism in the twentieth century consumed the lives of almost 60,000,000.”[38][aa][ad]
  • In 1994, Rummel’s book Death by Government included about 110 million people, foreign and domestic, killed by communist democide from 1900 to 1987.[39] This total did not include deaths from the Great Chinese Famine of 1958–1961 due to Rummel’s then belief that “although Mao’s policies were responsible for the famine, he was mislead about it, and finally when he found out, he stopped it and changed his policies.”[40][41] In 2004, historian Tomislav Dulić criticized Rummel’s estimate of the number killed in Tito’s Yugoslavia as an overestimation based on the inclusion of low-quality sources, and stated that Rummel’s other estimates may suffer from the same problem if he used similar sources for them.[42] Rummel responded with a critique of Dulić’s analysis[43] but was not convincing.[44] In 2005, a retired Rummel revised upward his total for communist democide between 1900 and 1999 from 110 million to about 148 million due to additional information about Mao’s culpability in the Great Chinese Famine from Mao: The Unknown Story, including Jon Halliday and Jung Chang‘s estimated 38 million famine deaths.[40][41] Karlsson describes Rummel’s estimates as being on the fringe, stating that “they are hardly an example of a serious and empirically-based writing of history”, and mainly discusses them “on the basis of the interest in him in the blogosphere.”[45]
  • In 1997, historian Stéphane Courtois‘s introduction to The Black Book of Communism, an impactful yet controversial[33] work written about the history of communism in the 20th century,[46] gave a “rough approximation, based on unofficial estimates” approaching 100 million killed. The subtotals listed by Courtois added up to 94.36 million killed.[ae] Nicolas Werth and Jean-Louis Margolin, contributing authors to the book, criticized Courtois as obsessed with reaching a 100 million overall total.[47] In his foreword to the 1999 English edition, Martin Malia wrote that “a grand total of victims variously estimated by contributors to the volume at between 85 million and 100 million.”[af] Courtois’ attempt to equate Nazism and communist regimes was controversial, and remains on the fringes, on both scientific and moral grounds.[48][ag]
  • In 2005, associate professor Benjamin Valentino stated that the number of non-combatants killed by communist regimes in the Soviet Union, China, and Cambodia alone ranged from a low of 21 million to a high of 70 million.[ah][ai] Citing Rummel and others,[aa] Valentino wrote that the “highest end of the plausible range of deaths attributed to communist regimes” was up to 110 million.”[ah]
  • In 2010, professor of economics Steven Rosefielde wrote in Red Holocaust that the internal contradictions of communist regimes caused the killing of approximately 60 million people and perhaps tens of millions more.[49]
  • In 2011, self-described atrocitiologist Matthew White published his rough total of 70 million “people who died under communist regimes from execution, labor camps, famine, ethnic cleansing, and desperate flight in leaky boats”, not counting those killed in wars.[aj]
  • In 2012, academic Alex J. Bellamy wrote that a “conservative estimate puts the total number of civilians deliberately killed by communists after the Second World War between 6.7 million and 15.5 million people, with the true figure probably much higher.”[ak]
  • In 2014, professor of Chinese politics Julia Strauss wrote that while there was the beginning of a scholarly consensus on figures of around 20 million killed in the Soviet Union and 2–3 million in Cambodia, there was no such consensus on numbers for China.[al]
  • In 2016, the Dissident blog of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation made an effort to compile ranges of estimates using sources from 1976 to 2010, and wrote that the overall range “spans from 42,870,000 to 161,990,000” killed, with 100 million the most commonly cited figure.[am]
  • In 2017, historian Stephen Kotkin wrote in The Wall Street Journal that communist regimes killed at least 65 million people between 1917 and 2017, commenting: “Though communism has killed huge numbers of people intentionally, even more of its victims have died from starvation as a result of its cruel projects of social engineering.”[50][an]

Criticism is mostly focused on three aspects, namely that the estimates are based on sparse and incomplete data when significant errors are inevitable,[51][52][53] the figures are skewed to higher possible values,[51][54][ao] and victims of civil wars, Holodomor, and other famines, and wars involving communist governments should not be counted.[51][55][56] Criticism of the high-end estimates such as Rummel’s have focused on two aspects, namely his choice of data sources and his statistical approach. Historical sources Rummel based his estimates upon can rarely serve as sources of reliable figures.[57] The statistical approach Rummel used to analyze big sets of diverse estimates may lead to dilution of useful data with noisy ones.[57][58]

Another common criticism, as articulated by anthropologist and former European communist regimes specialist Kristen Ghodsee and other scholars, is that the body-counting reflects an anti-communist point of view and is mainly approached by anti-communist scholars, and is part of the popular “victims of communism” narrative,[59][60] with 100 million being the most common, popularly used estimate,[61][ap] which is used not only to discredit the communist movement but the whole political left.[62][aq] Anti-communist organizations seek to institutionalize the “victims of communism” narrative as a double genocide theory, or the moral equivalence between the Nazi Holocaust (race murder) and those killed by communist regimes (class murder).[59][63] Alongside philosopher Scott Sehon, Ghodsee wrote that “quibbling about numbers is unseemly. What matters is that many, many people were killed by communist regimes.”[63] The same body-counting can be easily applied to other ideologies or systems, such as capitalism.[61][ar][63][as]

Proposed causes

Main article: Criticism of communist party rule


Klas-Göran Karlsson writes: “Ideologies are systems of ideas, which cannot commit crimes independently. However, individuals, collectives and states that have defined themselves as communist have committed crimes in the name of communist ideology, or without naming communism as the direct source of motivation for their crimes.”[64] Academics such as Daniel Goldhagen,[65] Richard Pipes,[66] and John Gray[67] have written books about communist regimes for a popular audience, and scholars such as Rudolph Rummel consider the ideology of communism to be a significant causative factor in mass killings.[51][68] In the introduction to The Black Book of CommunismStéphane Courtois claims an association between communism and criminality, stating that “Communist regimes … turned mass crime into a full-blown system of government”,[69] while adding that this criminality lies at the level of ideology rather than state practice.[70]The last issue, printed in red ink, of Karl Marx’s journal Neue Rheinische Zeitung from 19 May 1849

Professor Mark Bradley writes that communist theory and practice has often been in tension with human rights and most communist states followed the lead of Karl Marx in rejecting “Enlightenment-era inalienable individual political and civil rights” in favor of “collective economic and social rights.”[z] Christopher J. Finlay posits that Marxism legitimates violence without any clear limiting principle because it rejects moral and ethical norms as constructs of the dominant class, and states that “it would be conceivable for revolutionaries to commit atrocious crimes in bringing about a socialist system, with the belief that their crimes will be retroactively absolved by the new system of ethics put in place by the proletariat.”[at] Rustam Singh states that Marx had alluded to the possibility of peaceful revolution; after the failed Revolutions of 1848, Singh states that Marx emphasized the need for violent revolution and revolutionary terror.[au]

Literary historian George Watson cited an 1849 article written by Friedrich Engels called “The Hungarian Struggle” and published in Marx’s journal Neue Rheinische Zeitung, stating that the writings of Engels and others show that “the Marxist theory of history required and demanded genocide for reasons implicit in its claim that feudalism, which in advanced nations was already giving place to capitalism, must in its turn be superseded by socialism. Entire nations would be left behind after a workers’ revolution, feudal remnants in a socialist age, and since they could not advance two steps at a time, they would have to be killed. They were racial trash, as Engels called them, and fit only for the dung-heap of history.”[71][av] Watson’s claims have been criticized for dubious evidence by Robert Grant, who commented that “what Marx and Engels are calling for is … at the very least a kind of cultural genocide; but it is not obvious, at least from Watson’s citations, that actual mass killing, rather than (to use their phraseology) mere ‘absorption’ or ‘assimilation’, is in question.”[72] Talking about Engels’ 1849 article, historian Andrzej Walicki states: “It is difficult to deny that this was an outright call for genocide.”[73] Jean-François Revel writes that Joseph Stalin recommended study of the 1849 Engels article in his 1924 book On Lenin and Leninism.[aw]

According to Rummel, the killings committed by communist regimes can best be explained as the result of the marriage between absolute power and the absolutist ideology of Marxism.[74] Rummel states that “communism was like a fanatical religion. It had its revealed text and its chief interpreters. It had its priests and their ritualistic prose with all the answers. It had a heaven, and the proper behavior to reach it. It had its appeal to faith. And it had its crusades against nonbelievers. What made this secular religion so utterly lethal was its seizure of all the state’s instruments of force and coercion and their immediate use to destroy or control all independent sources of power, such as the church, the professions, private businesses, schools, and the family.”[75] Rummels writes that Marxist communists saw the construction of their utopia as “though a war on poverty, exploitation, imperialism and inequality. And for the greater good, as in a real war, people are killed. And, thus, this war for the communist utopia had its necessary enemy casualties, the clergy, bourgeoisie, capitalists, wreckers, counterrevolutionaries, rightists, tyrants, rich, landlords, and noncombatants that unfortunately got caught in the battle. In a war millions may die, but the cause may be well justified, as in the defeat of Hitler and an utterly racist Nazism. And to many communists, the cause of a communist utopia was such as to justify all the deaths.”[74]

Benjamin Valentino writes that “apparently high levels of political support for murderous regimes and leaders should not automatically be equated with support for mass killing itself. Individuals are capable of supporting violent regimes or leaders while remaining indifferent or even opposed to specific policies that these regimes and carried out.” Valentino quotes Vladimir Brovkin as saying that “a vote for the Bolsheviks in 1917 was not a vote for Red Terror or even a vote for a dictatorship of the proletariat.”[76] According to Valentino, such strategies were so violent because they economically dispossess large numbers of people,[ax][s] commenting: “Social transformations of this speed and magnitude have been associated with mass killing for two primary reasons. First, the massive social dislocations produced by such changes have often led to economic collapseepidemics, and, most important, widespread famines. … The second reason that communist regimes bent on the radical transformation of society have been linked to mass killing is that the revolutionary changes they have pursued have clashed inexorably with the fundamental interests of large segments of their populations. Few people have proved willing to accept such far-reaching sacrifices without intense levels of coercion.”[77] According to Jacques Sémelin, “communist systems emerging in the twentieth century ended up destroying their own populations, not because they planned to annihilate them as such, but because they aimed to restructure the ‘social body’ from top to bottom, even if that meant purging it and recarving it to suit their new Promethean political imaginaire.[ay]

Daniel Chirot and Clark McCauley write that, especially in Joseph Stalin‘s Soviet Union, Mao Zedong‘s China, and Pol Pot‘s Cambodia, a fanatical certainty that socialism could be made to work motivated communist leaders in “the ruthless dehumanization of their enemies, who could be suppressed because they were ‘objectively’ and ‘historically’ wrong. Furthermore, if events did not work out as they were supposed to, then that was because class enemies, foreign spies and saboteurs, or worst of all, internal traitors were wrecking the plan. Under no circumstances could it be admitted that the vision itself might be unworkable, because that meant capitulation to the forces of reaction.”[az] Michael Mann writes that communist party members were “ideologically driven, believing that in order to create a new socialist society, they must lead in socialist zeal. Killings were often popular, the rank-and-file as keen to exceed killing quotas as production quotas.”[ba] According to Vladimir Tismăneanu, “the Communist project, in such countries as the USSR, China, Cuba, Romania, or Albania, was based precisely on the conviction that certain social groups were irretrievably alien and deservedly murdered.”[bb] Alex Bellamy writes that “communism’s ideology of selective extermination” of target groups was first developed and applied by Joseph Stalin but that “each of the communist regimes that massacred large numbers of civilians during the Cold War developed their own distinctive account”,[bc] while Steven T. Katz states that distinctions based on class and nationality, stigmatized and stereotyped in various ways, created an “otherness” for victims of communist rule that was important for legitimating oppression and death.[bd] Martin Shaw writes that “nationalist ideas were at the heart of many mass killings by Communist states”, beginning with Stalin’s “new nationalist doctrine of ‘socialism in one country'”, and killing by revolutionary movements in the Third World was done in the name of national liberation.[be]

Political system

Prosecutor General Andrey Vyshinsky (centre) reading the 1937 indictment against Karl Radek during the second Moscow Trial

Anne Applebaum writes that “without exception, the Leninist belief in the one-party state was and is characteristic of every communist regime” and “the Bolshevik use of violence was repeated in every communist revolution.” Phrases said by Vladimir Lenin and Cheka founder Felix Dzerzhinsky were deployed all over the world. Applebaum states that as late as 1976, Mengistu Haile Mariam unleashed a Red Terror in Ethiopia.[78] To his colleagues in the Bolshevik government, Lenin was quoted as saying: “If we are not ready to shoot a saboteur and White Guardist, what sort of revolution is that?”[79]

Robert Conquest stressed that Stalin’s purges were not contrary to the principles of Leninism but rather a natural consequence of the system established by Lenin, who personally ordered the killing of local groups of class enemy hostages.[80] Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev, architect of perestroika and glasnost and later head of the Presidential Commission for the Victims of Political Repression, elaborates on this point, stating: “The truth is that in punitive operations Stalin did not think up anything that was not there under Lenin: executions, hostage taking, concentration camps, and all the rest.”[81] Historian Robert Gellately concurs, commenting: “To put it another way, Stalin initiated very little that Lenin had not already introduced or previewed.”[82]

Stephen Hicks of Rockford College ascribes the violence characteristic of 20th-century socialist rule to these collectivist regimes’ abandonment of protections of civil rights and rejection of the values of civil society. Hicks writes that whereas “in practice every liberal capitalist country has a solid record for being humane, for by and large respecting rights and freedoms, and for making it possible for people to put together fruitful and meaningful lives”, in socialism “practice has time and again proved itself more brutal than the worst dictatorships prior to the twentieth century. Each socialist regime has collapsed into dictatorship and begun killing people on a huge scale.”[83][undue weight? – discuss]

Eric D. Weitz says that the mass killing in communist states is a natural consequence of the failure of the rule of law, seen commonly during periods of social upheaval in the 20th century. For both communist and non-communist mass killings, “genocides occurred at moments of extreme social crisis, often generated by the very policies of the regimes”,[84] and are not inevitable but are political decisions.[84] Steven Rosefielde writes that communist rulers had to choose between changing course and “terror-command” and more often than not chose the latter.[bf] Michael Mann posits that a lack of institutionalized authority structures meant that a chaotic mix of both centralized control and party factionalism were factors in the killing.[ba]


Professor Matthew Krain states that many scholars have pointed to revolutions and civil wars as providing the opportunity for radical leaders and ideologies to gain power and the preconditions for mass killing by the state.[bg] Professor Nam Kyu Kim writes that exclusionary ideologies are critical to explaining mass killing, but the organizational capabilities and individual characteristics of revolutionary leaders, including their attitudes towards risk and violence, are also important. Besides opening up political opportunities for new leaders to eliminate their political opponents, revolutions bring to power leaders who are more apt to commit large-scale acts of violence against civilians in order to legitimize and strengthen their own power.[85] Genocide scholar Adam Jones states that the Russian Civil War was very influential on the emergence of leaders like Stalin and it also accustomed people to “harshness, cruelty, terror.”[bh] Martin Malia called the “brutal conditioning” of the two World Wars important to understanding communist violence, although not its source.[86]

Historian Helen Rappaport describes Nikolay Yezhov, the bureaucrat who was in charge of the NKVD during the Great Purge, as a physically diminutive figure of “limited intelligence” and “narrow political understanding. … Like other instigators of mass murder throughout history, [he] compensated for his lack of physical stature with a pathological cruelty and the use of brute terror.”[87] Russian and world history scholar John M. Thompson places personal responsibility directly on Joseph Stalin. According to him, “much of what occurred only makes sense if it stemmed in part from the disturbed mentality, pathological cruelty, and extreme paranoia of Stalin himself. Insecure, despite having established a dictatorship over the party and country, hostile and defensive when confronted with criticism of the excesses of collectivization and the sacrifices required by high-tempo industrialization, and deeply suspicious that past, present, and even yet unknown future opponents were plotting against him, Stalin began to act as a person beleaguered. He soon struck back at enemies, real or imaginary.”[88] Professors Pablo Montagnes and Stephane Wolton posit that the purges in the Soviet Union and China can be attributed to the personalist leadership of Stalin and Mao, who were incentivized by having both control of the security apparatus used to carry out the purges and control of the appointment of replacements for those purged.[bi] Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek attributes Mao allegedly viewing human life as disposable to his “cosmic perspective” on humanity.[bj]

Soviet Union

Main article: Political repression in the Soviet UnionSign for the Solovetsky Stone, a memorial about repression in the Soviet Union at Lubyanka Square which was erected in 1990 by the human rights group Memorial in remembrance of the more than 40,000 innocent people shot in Moscow during the Great Terror

Adam Jones writes that “there is very little in the record of human experience to match the violence which was unleashed between 1917, when the Bolsheviks took power, and 1953, when Joseph Stalin died and the Soviet Union moved to adopt a more restrained and largely non-murderous domestic policy.” Jones states that the exceptions to this were the Khmer Rouge (in relative terms) and Mao’s rule in China (in absolute terms).[89]

Stephen G. Wheatcroft says that prior to the opening of the Soviet archives for historical research, “our understanding of the scale and the nature of Soviet repression has been extremely poor” and that some scholars who wish to maintain pre-1991 high estimates are “finding it difficult to adapt to the new circumstances when the archives are open and when there are plenty of irrefutable data”, and instead “hang on to their old Sovietological methods with round-about calculations based on odd statements from emigres and other informants who are supposed to have superior knowledge”, although he acknowledged that even the figures estimated from the additional documents are not “final or definitive.”[90][91] In the 2007 revision of his book The Great Terror, Robert Conquest estimates that while exact numbers will never be certain, the communist leaders of the Soviet Union were responsible for no fewer than 15 million deaths.[bk]

Some historians attempt to make separate estimates for different periods of Soviet history, with casualty estimates varying widely. Timothy D. Snyder estimates 6 million for the Stalinist period.[92] Alec Nove estimates 8.1 million for the period ending in 1937.[93] Stéphane Courtois estimates 20 million[69] and Alexander Yakovlev estimates 20-25 million for the entire period of Soviet rule.[bl] Rudolph Rummel estimates 61 million for the 1917–1987 period.[94]

Red Terror

See also: DecossackizationExecution of the Romanov familyRed TerrorTambov Rebellion, and Vladimir Lenin’s Hanging Order

The Red Terror was a period of political repression and executions carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918. During this period, the political police (the Cheka) conducted summary executions of tens of thousands of “enemies of the people.”[95][96][97][98][99] Many victims were “bourgeois hostages” rounded up and held in readiness for summary execution in reprisal for any alleged counter-revolutionary provocation.[100] Many were put to death during and after the suppression of revolts, such as the Kronstadt rebellion of Baltic Fleet sailors and the Tambov Rebellion of Russian peasants. Professor Donald Rayfield writes that “the repression that followed the rebellions in Kronstadt and Tambov alone resulted in tens of thousands of executions.”[101] A large number of Orthodox clergymen were also killed.[102][103]

According to Nicolas Werth, the policy of decossackization amounted to an attempt by Soviet leaders to “eliminate, exterminate, and deport the population of a whole territory.”[104] In the early months of 1919, perhaps 10,000 to 12,000 Cossacks were executed[105][106] and many more deported after their villages were razed to the ground.[107] Historian Michael Kort wrote: “During 1919 and 1920, out of a population of approximately 1.5 million Don Cossacks, the Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000.”[108]

Joseph Stalin

Main article: Excess mortality in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin

Estimates of the number of deaths which were brought about by Stalin’s rule are hotly debated by scholars in the fields of Soviet and Communist studies.[109][110] Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the archival revelations which followed it, some historians estimated that the number of people who were killed by Stalin’s regime was 20 million or higher.[92][111][112] Michael Parenti writes that estimates on the Stalinist death toll vary widely in part because such estimates are based on anecdotes in absence of reliable evidence and “speculations by writers who never reveal how they arrive at such figures.”[113]

After the Soviet Union dissolved, evidence from the Soviet archives became available, containing official records of the execution of approximately 800,000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses, around 1.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390,000 deaths which occurred during kulak forced settlements in the Soviet Union, for a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories.[bm] According to Golfo Alexopoulos, Anne ApplebaumOleg Khlevniuk, and Michael Ellman, official Soviet documentation of Gulag deaths is widely considered inadequate, as they write that the government frequently released prisoners on the edge of death in order to avoid officially counting them.[114][115] A 1993 study of archival data by J. Arch Getty et al. showed that a total of 1,053,829 people died in the Gulag from 1934 to 1953.[116] In 2010, Steven Rosefielde posited that this number has to be augmented by 19.4 percent in light of more complete archival evidence to 1,258,537, with the best estimate of Gulag deaths being 1.6 million from 1929 to 1953 when excess mortality is taken into account.[117] Alexopolous estimates a much higher total of at least 6 million dying in the Gulag or shortly after release.[118] Dan Healey has called her work a “challenge to the emergent scholarly consensus”,[bn] while Jeffrey Hardy has criticized Alexopoulos for basing her assertions primarily on indirect and misinterpreted evidence.[119]

According to historian Stephen G. Wheatcroft, Stalin’s regime can be charged with causing the purposive deaths of about a million people.[120] Wheatcroft excludes all famine deaths as purposive deaths and posits that those which qualify fit more closely the category of execution rather than murder.[120] Others posit that some of the actions of Stalin’s regime, not only those during the Holodomor but also dekulakization and targeted campaigns against particular ethnic groups, such as the Polish operation of the NKVD, can be considered as genocide[121][122] at least in its loose definition.[123] Modern data for the whole of Stalin’s rule was summarized by Timothy Snyder, who stated that under the Stalinist regime there were six million direct deaths and nine million in total, including the deaths from deportation, hunger, and Gulag deaths.[bo] Ellman attributes roughly 3 million deaths to the Stalinist regime, excluding excess mortality from famine, disease, and war.[124] Several popular press authors, among them Stalin biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore, Soviet/Russian historian Dmitri Volkogonov, and the director of Yale‘s “Annals of Communism” series Jonathan Brent, still put the death toll from Stalin at about 20 million.[bp][bq][br][bs][bt]

Mass deportations of ethnic minorities

Main article: Population transfer in the Soviet UnionSoviet leader Joseph Stalin and Lavrenti Beria (in the foreground), who was responsible for mass deportations of ethnic minorities as head of the NKVD

The Soviet government during Stalin’s rule conducted a series of deportations on an enormous scale that significantly affected the ethnic map of the Soviet Union. Deportations took place under extremely harsh conditions, often in cattle carriages, with hundreds of thousands of deportees dying en route.[125] Some experts estimate that the proportion of deaths from the deportations could be as high as one in three in certain cases.[bu][126] Raphael Lemkin, a lawyer of Polish-Jewish descent who initiated the Genocide Convention in 1948 and coined genocide, assumed that genocide was perpetrated in the context of the mass deportation of the ChechensIngush peopleVolga GermansCrimean TatarsKalmyks, and Karachays.[127]

Regarding the fate of the Crimean Tatars, Amir Weiner of Stanford University writes that the policy could be classified as ethnic cleansing. In the book Century of Genocide, Lyman H. Legters writes: “We cannot properly speak of a completed genocide, only of a process that was genocidal in its potentiality.”[128] In contrast to this view, Jon K. Chang posits that the deportations had been in fact based on genocides based on ethnicity and that “social historians” in the West have failed to champion the rights of marginalized ethnicities in the Soviet Union.[129] This view is supported by several countries. On 12 December 2015, the Ukrainian Parliament issued a resolution recognizing the 1944 deportation of Crimean Tatars (the Sürgünlik) as genocide and established the 18th of May as the Day of Remembrance for the victims of the Crimean Tatar Genocide.[130] The Parliament of Latvia recognized the event as an act of genocide on 9 May 2019.[131][132] The Parliament of Lithuania did the same on 6 June 2019.[133] The Parliament of Canada passed a motion on 10 June 2019, recognizing the Crimean Tatar deportation as a genocide perpetrated by Soviet dictator Stalin, designating the 18th of May to be a day of remembrance.[134] The deportation of Chechens and Ingush was acknowledged by the European Parliament as an act of genocide in 2004, stating:[135] “Believes that the deportation of the entire Chechen people to Central Asia on 23 February 1944 on the orders of Stalin constitutes an act of genocide within the meaning of the Fourth Hague Convention of 1907 and the Convention for the Prevention and Repression of the Crime of Genocide adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948.”[136]

Soviet famine of 1932–1933

Main article: Soviet famine of 1932–1933See also: Collectivization in the Soviet UnionDekulakizationHolodomorHolodomor genocide question, and Kazakh famine of 1931–1933

Within the Soviet Union, forced changes in agricultural policies (collectivization), confiscations of grain and droughts caused the Soviet famine of 1932–1933 in the Ukrainian SSR (Holodomor), North Caucasus KraiVolga region, and Kazakh SSR.[137][138][139] The famine was most severe in Ukrainian, where it is often referenced as the Holodomor. A significant portion of the famine victims (3.3 to 7.5 million) were Ukrainians.[140][141][142] Another part of the famine was that in Kazakhstan, also known as the Kazakh catastrophe, when more than 1.3 million ethnic Kazakhs (about 38% of the population) died.[143][144]

While there is still a debate among scholars on whether the Holodomor was a genocide, some scholars say the Stalinist policies that caused the famine may have been designed as an attack on the rise of Ukrainian nationalism[145] and may fall under the legal definition of genocide by the United Nations‘s Genocide Convention.[137][146][147][148] The famine was officially recognized as genocide by the Ukraine and other governments.[149][bv] In a draft resolution, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe declared that the famine was caused by the “cruel and deliberate actions and policies of the Soviet regime” and was responsible for the deaths of “millions of innocent people” in Ukraine, BelarusKazakhstanMoldova, and Russia. Relative to its population, Kazakhstan is believed to have been the most adversely affected.[150] Regarding the Kazakh famine, Michael Ellman states that it “seems to be an example of ‘negligent genocide’ which falls outside the scope of the UN Convention of genocide.”[151]

Great Purge

Main article: Great PurgeSee also: Mass graves from Soviet mass executionsMass operations of the NKVD, and Stalinist repressions in MongoliaMass graves dating from 1937–1938 opened up and hundreds of bodies exhumed for identification by family members[152]

Stalin’s attempts to solidify his position as leader of the Soviet Union led to an escalation of detentions and executions, climaxing in 1937–1938, a period sometimes referred to as the Yezhovshchina’ after Cheka official Nikolay Yezhov, or Yezhov era, and continuing until Stalin’s death in 1953. Around 700,000 of these were executed by a gunshot to the back of the head.[153] Others perished from beatings and torture while in “investigative custody”[154] and in the Gulag due to starvation, disease, exposure, and overwork.[bw]

Arrests were typically made citing Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code) about counter-revolutionary laws, which included failure to report treasonous actions and in an amendment added in 1937 failing to fulfill one’s appointed duties. In the cases investigated by the State Security Department of the NKVD from October 1936 to November 1938, at least 1,710,000 people were arrested and 724,000 people executed.[155] Modern historical studies estimate a total number of repression deaths during 1937–1938 as 950,000–1,200,000. These figures take into account the incompleteness of official archival data and include both execution deaths and Gulag deaths during that period.[bw] Former kulaks and their families made up the majority of victims, with 669,929 people arrested and 376,202 executed.[156]

The NKVD conducted a series of national operations which targeted some ethnic groups.[157] A total of 350,000 were arrested and 247,157 were executed.[158] Of these, the Polish operation of the NKVD, which targeted the members of Polska Organizacja Wojskowa, appears to have been the largest, with 140,000 arrests and 111,000 executions.[157] Although these operations might well constitute genocide as defined by the United Nations convention,[157] or “a mini-genocide” according to Simon Sebag Montefiore,[158] there is as yet no authoritative ruling on the legal characterization of these events.[123] Citing church documents, Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev has estimated that over 100,000 priests, monks, and nuns were executed during this time.[159][160] Regarding the persecution of clergy, Michael Ellman has stated that “the 1937–38 terror against the clergy of the Russian Orthodox Church and of other religions (Binner & Junge 2004) might also qualify as genocide.”[161] In the summer and autumn of 1937, Stalin sent NKVD agents to the Mongolian People’s Republic and engineered a Mongolian Great Terror[162] in which some 22,000[163] or 35,000[164] people were executed. Around 18,000 victims were Buddhist lamas.[163] In Belarus, mass graves for several thousand civilians killed by the NKVD between 1937 and 1941 were discovered in 1988 at Kurapaty.[165]

Soviet killings during World War II

Main article: Soviet war crimesSee also: Katyn massacreNKVD prisoner massacresOccupation of the Baltic states, and Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939–1946)

Following the Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, NKVD task forces started removing “Soviet-hostile elements” from the conquered territories.[166] The NKVD systematically practiced torture which often resulted in death.[167][168] According to the Polish Institute of National Remembrance, 150,000 Polish citizens perished due to Soviet repression during the war.[169][170] The most notorious killings occurred in the spring of 1940, when the NKVD executed some 21,857 Polish POWs and intellectual leaders in what has become known as the Katyn massacre.[171][172][173] Executions were also carried out after the annexation of the Baltic states.[174] During the initial phases of Operation Barbarossa, the NKVD and attached units of the Red Army massacred prisoners and political opponents by the tens of thousands before fleeing from the advancing Axis powers forces.[175] Memorial complexes have been built at NKVD execution sites at Katyn and Mednoye in Russia, as well as a “third killing field” at Piatykhatky, Ukraine.[176]

People’s Republic of China

Main article: History of the People’s Republic of China (1949–1976)See also: Chinese Civil WarList of massacres in China, and Mass killings of landlords under Mao ZedongA large portrait of Mao Zedong at Tiananmen

The Chinese Communist Party came to power in China in 1949 after a long and bloody civil war between communists and the nationalist Kuomintang. There is a general consensus among historians that after Mao Zedong seized power, his policies and political purges directly or indirectly caused the deaths of tens of millions of people.[177][178][179] Based on the Soviets’ experience, Mao considered violence to be necessary in order to achieve an ideal society that would be derived from Marxism and as a result he planned and executed violence on a grand scale.[180][181]

Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries

Main articles: Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries and Chinese Land Reform

The first large-scale killings under Mao took place during his land reform and the campaign to suppress counter-revolutionaries. According to Daniel Goldhagen, official study materials published in 1948 show that Mao envisaged that “one-tenth of the peasants”, or about 50,000,000, “would have to be destroyed” to facilitate agrarian reform.[182] The exact number of people who were killed during Mao’s land reform is believed to have been lower; according to Rudolph Rummel and Philip Short, at least one million people were killed.[180][183] The suppression of counter-revolutionaries targeted mainly former Kuomintang officials and intellectuals who were suspected of disloyalty.[184] According to Yang Kuisong, at least 712,000 people were executed and 1,290,000 were imprisoned in labor camps known as Laogai.[185]

Great Leap Forward and the Great Chinese Famine

This group of sections that follow possibly contains original research. Individual articles are not described as mass killings (the Great Chinese Famine, which accounts for about 50% of what is called by some authors “Communist death toll”, is not described as mass killing), and are not included in genocide scholar Barbara Harff‘s global database of mass killings, which is the most frequently used by genocide scholars and includes politicides; one of the few exception is the Cambodian genocide, which is also one of the few events on which scholars agree on it being genocide, and indeed it is included in the database as politicide and genocide. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (November 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main articles: Great Chinese Famine and Great Leap Forward

Benjamin Valentino posits that the Great Leap Forward was a cause of the Great Chinese Famine and the worst effects of the famine were steered towards the regime’s enemies.[186] Those who were labeled “black elements” (religious leaders, rightists, and rich peasants) in earlier campaigns died in the greatest numbers because they were given the lowest priority in the allocation of food.[186] In Mao’s Great Famine, historian Frank Dikötter writes that “coercion, terror, and systematic violence were the very foundation of the Great Leap Forward” and it “motivated one of the most deadly mass killings of human history.”[187] Dikötter estimates that at least 2.5 million people were summarily killed or tortured to death during this period.[188] His research in local and provincial Chinese archives indicates the death toll was at least 45 million: “In most cases the party knew very well that it was starving its own people to death.”[189] In a secret meeting at Shanghai in 1959, Mao issued the order to procure one third of all grain from the countryside, saying: “When there is not enough to eat people starve to death. It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill.”[189] In light of additional evidence of Mao’s culpability, Rummel added those killed by the Great Famine to his total for Mao’s democide for a total of 77 million killed.[41][bx]


Main article: History of Tibet (1950–present)

According to Jean-Louis Margolin in The Black Book of Communism, the Chinese communists carried out a cultural genocide against the Tibetans. Margolin states that the killings were proportionally larger in Tibet than they were in China proper and “one can legitimately speak of genocidal massacres because of the numbers that were involved.”[190] According to the Dalai Lama and the Central Tibetan Administration, “Tibetans were not only shot, but they were also beaten to death, crucified, burned alive, drowned, mutilated, starved, strangled, hanged, boiled alive, buried alive, drawn and quartered, and beheaded.”[190] Adam Jones, a scholar who specializes in genocide, states that after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Chinese authorized struggle sessions against reactionaries, during which “communist cadres denounced, tortured, and frequently executed enemies of the people.” These sessions resulted in 92,000 deaths out of a total population of about 6 million. These deaths, Jones stressed, may not only be seen as a genocide, but they may also be seen as an eliticide, meaning “targeting the better educated and leadership oriented elements among the Tibetan population.”[191] Patrick French, the former director of the Free Tibet Campaign in London, writes that the Free Tibet Campaign and other groups have claimed that a total of 1.2 million Tibetans were killed by the Chinese since 1950 but after examining archives in Dharamsala, he found “no evidence to support that figure.”[192] French states that a reliable alternative number is unlikely to be known but estimates that as many as half a million Tibetans died “as a ‘direct result’ of the policies of the People’s Republic of China”, using historian Warren Smith’s estimate of 200,000 people who are missing from population statistics in the Tibet Autonomous Region and extending that rate to the borderland regions.[193]

Cultural Revolution

Main article: Cultural Revolution

Sinologists Roderick MacFarquhar and Michael Schoenhals estimate that between 750,000 and 1.5 million people were killed in the violence of the Cultural Revolution in rural China alone.[194] Mao’s Red Guards were given carte blanche to abuse and kill people who were perceived to be enemies of the revolution.[195] Sociologist Yang Su has written that these mass killing were an outcome of “the paradox of state sponsorship and state failure”; according to Yang, mass killings were concentrated in rural areas in the months after the establishment of county revolutionary committees, with mass killing being more likely in communities with more local party members. Repression by the local organizations may have been in response to the rhetoric of violence promoted by the provincial capitals as a result of mass factionalism in those capitals, and the “peaks of mass killings coincided with two announcements from the party center in July 1968 banning factional armed battles and disbanding mass organizations”;[by] Yang writes that Mao’s government designated class enemies using an artificial and arbitrary standard to accomplish two political tasks: “mobilizing mass compliance and resolving elite conflict”, while the elastic nature of the category allowed it to “take on a genocidal dimension under extraordinary circumstances.”[bz] Political scientists Evgeny Finkel and Scott Straus write that Su estimates up to three million people were “murdered by their neighbors in collective killings and struggle rallies. This happened even though the central government had not issued any mass killing orders or policies.”[196]

In August 1966, over 100 teachers were murdered by their students in western Beijing.[197]

Tiananmen Square

Main article: 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre

Jean-Louis Margolin states that under Deng Xiaoping, at least 1,000 people were killed in Beijing and hundreds of people were also executed in the countryside after his government crushed demonstrations in Tiananmen Square in 1989.[198] According to Louisa Lim in 2014, a group of victims’ relatives in China called the “Tiananmen Mothers” has confirmed the identities of more than 200 of those who were killed.[199] Alex Bellamy writes that this “tragedy marks the last time in which an episode of mass killing in East Asia was terminated by the perpetrators themselves, judging that they had succeeded.”[200]

  • Replica of the Goddess of Democracy statue in Hong Kong’s June 4th Museum
  • A memorial to the 1989 Tiananmen Square events in the Dominican Square in Wrocław, Poland
  • Statue located in Ávila, Spain recalling the events of Tiananmen Square


Main article: Cambodian genocideSee also: Cambodian Civil WarDemocratic KampucheaKhmer Rouge, and Killing FieldsSkulls of victims of the Khmer Rouge Killing Fields in Cambodia

The Killing Fields are a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and their bodies were buried by the Khmer Rouge regime during its rule of the country, which lasted from 1975 to 1979, after the end of the Cambodian Civil War. Sociologist Martin Shaw described the Cambodian genocide as “the purest genocide of the Cold War era.”[201] The results of a demographic study of the Cambodian genocide concluded that the nationwide death toll from 1975 to 1979 amounted to 1,671,000 to 1,871,000, or 21 to 24 percent of the total Cambodian population as it was estimated to number before the Khmer Rouge took power.[202] According to Ben Kiernan, the number of deaths which were specifically caused by execution is still unknown because many victims died from starvation, disease and overwork.[202] Researcher Craig Etcheson of the Documentation Center of Cambodia suggests that the death toll was between 2 and 2.5 million, with a “most likely” figure of 2.2 million. After spending five years researching about 20,000 grave sites, he posited that “these mass graves contain the remains of 1,112,829 victims of execution.”[203] A study by French demographer Marek Sliwinski calculated slightly fewer than 2 million unnatural deaths under the Khmer Rouge out of a 1975 Cambodian population of 7.8 million, with 33.5% of Cambodian men dying under the Khmer Rouge compared to 15.7% of Cambodian women.[204] The number of suspected victims of execution who were found in 23,745 mass graves is estimated to be 1.3 million according to a 2009 academic source. Execution is believed to account for roughly 60% of the total death toll during the genocide, with other victims succumbing to starvation or disease.[205]

Helen Fein, a genocide scholar, states that the xenophobic ideology of the Khmer Rouge regime bears a stronger resemblance to “an almost forgotten phenomenon of national socialism”, or fascism, rather than communism.[206] Responding to Ben Kiernan‘s “argument that Pol Pot’s Democratic Kampuchea regime was more racist and generically totalitarian than Marxist or specifically Communist”, Steve Heder states that the example of such racialist thought as it is applied in relation to the minority Cham people echoed “Marx’s definition of a historyless people doomed to extinction in the name of progress” and it was therefore a part of general concepts of class and class struggle.[207] Craig Etcheson writes that data on the distribution and origin of the mass graves as well as internal Khmer Rouge security documents, leads to the conclusion that “most of the violence was carried out pursuant to orders from the highest political authorities of the Communist Party of Kampuchea”, rather than being the result of the “spontaneous excesses of a vengeful, undisciplined peasant army”,[ca] while French historian Henri Locard writes that the fascist label was applied to the Khmer Rouge by the Communist Party of Vietnam as a form of revisionism, but the repression which existed under the rule of the Khmer Rouge was “similar (if significantly more lethal) to the repression in all communist regimes.”[204] Daniel Goldhagen states that the Khmer Rouge were xenophobic because they believed that the Khmer people were “the one authentic people capable of building true communism.”[208] Steven Rosefielde writes that Democratic Kampuchea was the deadliest of all communist regimes on a per capita basis, primarily because it “lacked a viable productive core” and it “failed to set boundaries on mass murder.”[209]

Other states

Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr write: “Most Marxist–Leninist regimes which came to power through protracted armed struggle in the postwar period perpetrated one or more politicides, though of vastly different magnitudes.”[cb] According to Benjamin Valentino, most regimes that described themselves as communist did not commit mass killings, but in communist states such as BulgariaRomania, and East Germany, mass killings were committed on a scale which was smaller than his standard of 50,000 people who were killed within a period of five years, although the lack of documentation prevents a definitive judgement about the scale of these events and the motives of their perpetrators.[210] Atsushi Tago and Frank Wayman write that because democide is broader than mass killing or genocide, most communist regimes can be said to have engaged in it, including the Soviet Union, China, Cambodia, North Vietnam, East Germany, PolandCzechoslovakiaHungaryNorth KoreaCubaLaosAlbania, and Yugoslavia.[211]

People’s Republic of Bulgaria

According to Valentino, between 50,000 and 100,000 people may have been killed in Bulgaria beginning in 1944 as part of a campaign of agricultural collectivization and political repression, although there is insufficient documentation to make a definitive judgement.[212] In his book History of Communism in Bulgaria, Dinyu Sharlanov accounts for about 31,000 people who were killed by the regime between 1944 and 1989.[213][214]

East Germany

Further information: NKVD special camps in Germany 1945–1950

According to Valentino, between 80,000 and 100,000 people may have been killed in East Germany beginning in 1945 as part of the Soviet denazification campaign; other scholars posit that these estimates are inflated.[212][215][216]A memorial to dead prisoners at an NKVD special camp in Germany

Immediately after World War IIdenazification commenced in Allied-occupied Germany and regions the Nazis had annexed. In the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, the NKVD established prison camps, usually in abandoned Nazi concentration camps, and they used them to intern alleged Nazis and Nazi German officials, along with some landlords and Prussian Junkers. According to files and data released by the Soviet Ministry for the Interior in 1990, 123,000 Germans and 35,000 citizens of other nations were detained. Of these prisoners, a total of 786 people were shot and 43,035 people died of various causes. Most of the deaths were not direct killings but were caused by outbreaks of dysentery and tuberculosis. Deaths from starvation also occurred on a large scale, particularly from late 1946 to early 1947, but these deaths do not appear to have been deliberate killings because food shortages were widespread in the Soviet occupation zone. The prisoners in the “silence camps”, as the NKVD special camps were called, did not have access to the black market and were only able to get food that was handed to them by the authorities. Some prisoners were executed and others may have been tortured to death. In this context, it is difficult to determine if the prisoner deaths in the silence camps can be categorized as mass killings. It is also difficult to determine how many of the dead were Germans, East Germans, or members of other nationalities.[217][218]

East Germany’s government erected the Berlin Wall following the Berlin Crisis of 1961. Even though crossing between East Germany and West Germany was possible for motivated and approved travelers, thousands of East Germans tried to defect by illegally crossing the wall. Of these, between 136 and 227 people were killed by the Berlin Wall’s guards during the years of the wall’s existence (1961-1989).[219][220]

Socialist Republic of Romania

See also: Bărăgan deportations and Danube-Black Sea Canal § Forced labor and repression

According to Valentino, between 60,000 and 300,000 people may have been killed in Romania beginning in 1945 as part of agricultural collectivization and political repression.[212]

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

See also: Barbara Pit massacreBleiburg repatriationsFoibe massacresGoli OtokMacelj massacreKočevski Rog massacre, and Tezno massacreFurther information: Communist purges in Serbia in 1944–45Leftist errors, and Titoism

The communist regime of Josip Broz Tito bloodily repressed opponents and committed several massacres of prisoners of war after the World War II. The European Public Hearing on Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes reports: “The decision to ‘annihilate’ opponents must had been adopted in the closest circles of the Yugoslav state leadership, and the order was certainly issued by the Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army Josip Broz Tito, although it is not known when or in what form.”[221][222][223][224][cc]

Dominic McGoldrick writes that as the head of a “highly centralised and oppressive” dictatorship, Tito wielded tremendous power in Yugoslavia, with his dictatorial rule administered through an elaborate bureaucracy which routinely suppressed human rights.[224] Eliott Behar states that “Tito’s Yugoslavia was a tightly controlled police state”,[225] and outside the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia had more political prisoners than all of the rest of Eastern Europe combined, according to David Mates.[226] Tito’s secret police was modelled on the Soviet KGB. Its members were ever-present and they often acted extrajudicially,[227] with victims including middle-class intellectuals, liberals, and democrats.[228] Yugoslavia was a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights but scant regard was paid to some of its provisions.[229]

North Korea

Further information: Human rights in North KoreaKwallisoNorth Korean famine, and Prisons in North Korea

According to Rudolph Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) from 1948 to 1987.[230] Others have estimated that 400,000 people died in North Korea’s concentration camps alone.[231] A wide range of atrocities have been committed in the camps including forced abortions, infanticide and torture. Former International Criminal Court judge Thomas Buergenthal, who was one of the Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea‘s authors and a child survivor of Auschwitz, told The Washington Post that “conditions in the [North] Korean prison camps are as terrible, or even worse, than those I saw and experienced in my youth in these Nazi camps and in my long professional career in the human rights field.”[232] Pierre Rigoulot estimates 100,000 executions, 1.5 million deaths through concentration camps and slave labor, and 500,000 deaths from famine.[233] During the Korean War, the DPRK “liquidated” 29,000 civilians during the North Korean occupation of South Korea, June to September, 1950.[234]

The famine, which claimed as many as one million lives, has been described as the result of the economic policies pursued by the North Korean government[235] and deliberate “terror-starvation”;[236] in 2010, Steven Rosefielde stated that the Red Holocaust “still persists in North Korea”, as Kim Jong Il “refuses to abandon mass killing.”[237] Adam Jones cites journalist Jasper Becker‘s claim that the famine was a form of mass killing or genocide due to political manipulations of food.[238] Estimates based on a North Korean 2008 census suggest 240,000 to 420,000 excess deaths as a result of the 1990s North Korean famine and a demographic impact of 600,000 to 850,000 fewer people in North Korea in 2008 as a result of poor living conditions after the famine.[239]

Democratic Republic of Vietnam

Main articles: Land reform in North Vietnam and Land reform in VietnamSee also: NLF and PAVN strategy, organization and structurePersecution of the Montagnard in VietnamRe-education camp (Vietnam); and Vietnamese boat people

Valentino attributes 80,000–200,000 deaths to “communist mass killings” in North and South Vietnam.[240]

According to scholarship based on Vietnamese and Hungarian archival evidence, as many as 15,000 suspected landlords were executed during North Vietnam’s land reform from 1953 to 1956.[cd][241][242] The North Vietnamese leadership planned in advance to execute 0.1% of North Vietnam’s population (estimated at 13.5 million in 1955) as “reactionary or evil landlords”, although this ratio could vary in practice.[243][244] Dramatic errors were committed in the course of the land reform campaign.[245] Vu Tuong states that the number of executions during North Vietnam’s land reform was proportionally comparable to executions during Chinese land reform from 1949 to 1952.[243]


Main article: Human rights in Cuba

According to Jay Ulfelder and Benjamin Valentino, the Fidel Castro government of Cuba killed between 5,000 and 8,335 noncombatants as a part of the campaign of political repression between 1959 and 1970.[246]

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

Main article: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

According to Frank Wayman and Atsushi Tago, although frequently considered an example of communist genocide, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan represents a borderline case.[211] Prior to the Soviet–Afghan War, the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan executed between 10,000 and 27,000 people, mostly at Pul-e-Charkhi prison.[247][248][249] Mass graves of executed prisoners have been exhumed dating back to the Soviet era.[250]

After the invasion in 1979, the Soviets installed the puppet government of Babrak Karmal. By 1987, about 80% of the country’s territory was permanently controlled by neither the pro-communist government and supporting Soviet troops nor by the armed opposition. To tip the balance, the Soviet Union used a tactic that was a combination of scorched earth policy and migratory genocide. By systematically burning the crops and destroying villages in rebel provinces as well as by reprisal bombing entire villages suspected of harboring or supporting the resistance, the Soviets tried to force the local population to move to Soviet controlled territory, thereby depriving the armed opposition of support.[251] Valentino attributes between 950,000 and 1,280,000 civilian deaths to the Soviet invasion and occupation of the country between 1978 and 1989, primarily as counter-guerrilla mass killing.[252] By the early 1990s, approximately one-third of Afghanistan’s population had fled the country.[ce] M. Hassan Kakar said that “the Afghans are among the latest victims of genocide by a superpower.”[253]

People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Main article: Red Terror (Ethiopia)See also: 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia

Amnesty International estimates that half a million people were killed during the Ethiopian Red Terror of 1977 and 1978.[254][255][256] During the terror, groups of people were herded into churches that were then burned down and women were subjected to systematic rape by soldiers.[257] The Save the Children Fund reported that victims of the Red Terror included not only adults, but 1,000 or more children, mostly aged between eleven and thirteen, whose corpses were left in the streets of Addis Ababa.[254] Ethiopian dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam himself is alleged to have killed political opponents with his bare hands.[258]

Debate over famines

Further information: Soviet and Communist studiesThe Soviet famine of 1932–1933, with areas where the effects of famine were most severe shaded

According to historian J. Arch Getty, over half of the 100 million deaths which are attributed to communism were due to famines.[259] Stéphane Courtois posits that many communist regimes caused famines in their efforts to forcibly collectivize agriculture and systematically used it as a weapon by controlling the food supply and distributing food on a political basis. Courtois states that “in the period after 1918, only Communist countries experienced such famines, which led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands, and in some cases millions, of people. And again in the 1980s, two African countries that claimed to be Marxist–LeninistEthiopia and Mozambique, were the only such countries to suffer these deadly famines.”[cf]

Scholars Stephen G. WheatcroftR. W. Davies, and Mark Tauger reject the idea that the Ukrainian famine was an act of genocide that was intentionally inflicted by the Soviet government.[260][261] Getty posits that the “overwhelming weight of opinion among scholars working in the new archives is that the terrible famine of the 1930s was the result of Stalinist bungling and rigidity rather than some genocidal plan.”[259] Novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn opined in a 2 April 2008 article in Izvestia that the 1930s famine in the Ukraine was no different from the Russian famine of 1921–1922, as both were caused by the ruthless robbery of peasants by Bolshevik grain procurements.[262]

Pankaj Mishra questions Mao’s direct responsibility for famine, stating: “A great many premature deaths also occurred in newly independent nations not ruled by erratic tyrants.” Mishra cites Nobel laureate Amartya Sen‘s research demonstrating that democratic India suffered more excess mortality from starvation and disease in the second half of the 20th century than China did. Sen wrote: “India seems to manage to fill its cupboard with more skeletons every eight years than China put there in its years of shame.”[263][264]

Benjamin Valentino writes: “Although not all the deaths due to famine in these cases were intentional, communist leaders directed the worst effects of famine against their suspected enemies and used hunger as a weapon to force millions of people to conform to the directives of the state.”[77] Daniel Goldhagen says that in some cases deaths from famine should not be distinguished from mass murder, commenting: “Whenever governments have not alleviated famine conditions, political leaders decided not to say no to mass death – in other words, they said yes.” Goldhagen says that instances of this occurred in the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Great Leap Forward, the Nigerian Civil War, the Eritrean War of Independence, and the War in Darfur.[265] Martin Shaw posits that if a leader knew the ultimate result of their policies would be mass death by famine, and they continue to enact them anyway these death can be understood as intentional.[266][cg]

Historian and journalists, such as Seumas Milne and Jon Wiener, have criticized the emphasis on communism when assigning blame for famines. In a 2002 article for The Guardian, Milne mentions “the moral blindness displayed towards the record of colonialism“, and he writes: “If Lenin and Stalin are regarded as having killed those who died of hunger in the famines of the 1920s and 1930s, then Churchill is certainly responsible for the 4 million deaths in the avoidable Bengal famine of 1943.” Milne laments that while “there is a much-lauded Black Book of Communism, [there exists] no such comprehensive indictment of the colonial record.”[267] Weiner makes a similar assertion while comparing the Holodomor and the Bengal famine of 1943, stating that Winston Churchill‘s role in the Bengal famine “seems similar to Stalin’s role in the Ukrainian famine.”[268] Historian Mike Davis, author of Late Victorian Holocausts, draws comparisons between the Great Chinese Famine and the Indian famines of the late 19th century, arguing that in both instances the governments which oversaw the response to the famines deliberately chose not to alleviate conditions and as such bear responsibility for the scale of deaths in said famines.[269]

Historian Michael Ellman is critical of the fixation on a “uniquely Stalinist evil” when it comes to excess deaths from famines. Ellman posits that mass deaths from famines are not a “uniquely Stalinist evil”, commenting that throughout Russian history, famines, and droughts have been a common occurrence, including the Russian famine of 1921–1922, which occurred before Stalin came to power. He also states that famines were widespread throughout the world in the 19th and 20th centuries in countries such as India, Ireland, Russia and China. According to Ellman, the G8 “are guilty of mass manslaughter or mass deaths from criminal negligence because of their not taking obvious measures to reduce mass deaths” and Stalin’s “behaviour was no worse than that of many rulers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.”[124]

See also: Communist crimes (Polish legal concept) and Lustration

According to a 1992 constitutional amendment in the Czech Republic, a person who publicly denies, puts in doubt, approves, or tries to justify Nazi or communist genocide or other crimes of Nazis or communists will be punished with a prison term of 6 months to 3 years.[270] In 1992, Barbara Harff wrote that no communist country or governing body has ever been convicted of genocide.[271] In his 1999 foreword to The Black Book of CommunismMartin Malia wrote: “Throughout the former Communist world, moreover, virtually none of its responsible officials has been put on trial or punished. Indeed, everywhere Communist parties, though usually under new names, compete in politics.”[272]Mengistu Haile Mariam, the former communist leader of Ethiopia

At the conclusion of a trial lasting from 1994 to 2006, Ethiopia’s former ruler Mengistu Haile Mariam was convicted of genocidewar crimes, and crimes against humanity, and sentenced to death by an Ethiopian court for his role in Ethiopia’s Red Terror.[273][274][275][276] Ethiopian law is distinct from the United Nations‘ Genocide Convention and other definitions in that it defines genocide as intent to wipe out political and not just ethnic groups. In this respect, it closely resembles the definition of politicide.[271]

In 1997, the Cambodian government asked the United Nations for assistance in setting up the Khmer Rouge Tribunal.[277][278][279] The prosecution presented the names of five possible suspects to the investigating judges on 18 July 2007.[277] On 26 July 2010, Kang Kek Iew (Comrade Duch), director of the S-21 prison camp in Democratic Kampuchea where more than 14,000 people were tortured and then murdered (mostly at nearby Choeung Ek), was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 35 years. His sentence was reduced to 19 years in part because he had been behind bars for 11 years.[280] Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was charged of war crimes and crimes against humanity but not of genocide. On 7 August 2014, he was convicted of crimes against humanity by the Khmer Rouge Tribunal and received a life sentence.[281][282] Khieu Samphan, the Khmer Rouge head of state, was also convicted of crimes against humanity. In 2018, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan were convicted of genocide for “the attempted extermination of the Cham and Vietnamese minorities.”[283]

After restoration of their independence in 1991, the Baltic states started investigating crimes against humanity committed during the Soviet occupation, with most criminal cases focusing on deportation of civilians and extrajudicial killing of forest brethren. In 2013 Rain Liivoja estimated that Estonia had convicted eleven, Latvia nine, and Lithuania about dozen persons. Some former Soviet officials like Alfons Noviks [lv], the former People’s Commissar of the Interior of the Latvian SSR, were explicitly convicted for genocide.[284]

On 26 November 2010, the Russian State Duma issued a declaration acknowledging Stalin’s responsibility for the Katyn massacre, the execution of over 21,000 Polish POW’s and intellectual leaders by Stalin’s NKVD. The declaration stated that archival material “not only unveils the scale of his horrific tragedy but also provides evidence that the Katyn crime was committed on direct orders from Stalin and other Soviet leaders.”[285][ch]

Memorials and museums

See also: Black Ribbon DayDouble genocide theory, and Prague DeclarationMap of Stalin’s Gulag camps in the Gulag Museum in Moscow, founded in 2001 by the historian Anton Antonov-Ovseyenko

Monuments to the victims of communism exist in almost all the capitals of Eastern Europe and there are also several museums which document the crimes which occurred during communist rule such as the Museum of Occupations and Freedom Fights in Lithuania, the Museum of the Occupation of Latvia in Riga and the House of Terror in Budapest, all three of these museums also document the crimes which occurred during Nazi rule.[286][259] Several scholars, among them Kristen Ghodsee and Laure Neumayer, posit that these efforts seek to institutionalize the “victims of communism” narrative as a double genocide theory, or the moral equivalence between the Nazi Holocaust (race murder) and those killed by communist states (class murder),[59] and that works such as The Black Book of Communism played a major role in the criminalization of communism in the European political space in the post Cold War-era.[60] Zoltan Dujisin writes that “the Europeanization of an antitotalitarian ‘collective memory’ of communism reveals the emergence of a field of anticommunism” and the narrative is proposed by “anticommunist memory entrepreneurs.”[287]

In Washington D.C., a bronze statue modeled after the Goddess of Democracy sculpture, which was created during the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, was dedicated as the Victims of Communism Memorial in 2007, having been authorized by the Congress in 1993.[17][288] The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation plans to build an International Museum on Communism in Washington.[289] In 2002, the Memorial to the Victims of Communism was unveiled in Prague.[290] In Hungary, the Gloria Victis Memorial to honor “the 100 million victims of communism” was erected in 2006 on the 50th anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution.[291] As of 2008, Russia contained 627 memorials and memorial plaques which are dedicated to the victims of the communist terror, most of them were created by private citizens, but it did not have either a national monument or a national museum.[292] The Wall of Grief in Moscow, inaugurated in October 2017, is Russia’s first monument to the victims of political persecution by Stalin during the country’s Soviet era.[293] In 2017, Canada’s National Capital Commission approved the design of the Memorial to the Victims of Communism – Canada, a Land of Refuge which will be built on the Garden of the Provinces and Territories in Ottawa.[294] On 23 August 2018, Estonia’s Victims of Communism 1940–1991 Memorial was inaugurated in Tallinn by Estonian president Kersti Kaljulaid.[295] The memorial’s construction was financed by the state and the memorial itself is being managed by the Estonian Institute of Historical Memory.[296] The date of the opening ceremony was chosen because it coincided with the official European Day of Remembrance for the Victims of Stalinism and Nazism.[297]


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The concept of mass killing as a phenomenon unique to communist governments, or ideologically inherent within them, is heavily disputed.[61][63]

Many commentators on the political right state that the mass killings under communist regimes are an indictment of communism.[298][61][299] Opponents of this hypothesis state that these killings were aberrations caused by specific authoritarian regimes, and not caused by communism itself, and point to mass deaths in wars that they claim were caused by capitalism and anti-communism as a counterpoint to those killings.[ci][61][300][63]

See also

Communist movements and violence

Mass killing of communists

Violence by governments in general and comparative studies


Excerpts and notes

  1. ^ Krain 1997, pp. 331–332: “1. The literatures on state-sponsored mass murder and state terrorism have been plagued by definitional problems. Terms such as state-sponsored mass murder and state terrorism can be (and often are) easily confused and therefore need elaboration. The main difference between state-sponsored mass murder and state terrorism, for instance, is one of intentionality. The purpose behind policies of state-sponsored mass murder such as genocide or politicide is to eliminate an entire group (Gurr 1986, 67). The purpose behind policies of state terrorism is to ‘induce sharp fear and through that agency to effect a desired outcome in a conflict situation’ (Gurr 1986, 46). The former requires mass killings to accomplish its goal. The latter’s success is dependent on the persuasiveness of the fear tactics used. Mass killings may not be necessary to accomplish the particular goal. … 2. Genocides are mass killings in which the victim group is defined by association with a particular communal group. Politicides are mass killings in which ‘victim groups are defined primarily in terms of their hierarchical position or political opposition to the regime and dominant groups’ (Harff and Gurr 1988, 360). Interestingly, many of the instances coded by Harff and Gurr as ‘politicide’ are considered by much of the literature to be instances of state terrorism (e.g., Argentina, Chile, El Salvador) (Lopez 1984, 63). Evidently there is some overlap between state terrorism and some kinds of state-sponsored mass murder.”
  2. ^ Valentino 2005, p. 9: “Mass killing and Genocide. No generally accepted terminology exists to describe the intentional killing of large numbers of noncombatants.”
  3. ^ Karlsson & Schoenhals 2008, p. 6: “‘Crimes against humanity’ is a linguistically and logically cumbersome term when the aim is to analyse physical violence perpetrated by individual groups, institutions and states against specific victim groups in their own country, which is essentially the case in the context of communist regimes’ crimes against humanity. In addition, it is not in keeping with the terms that have long been used by the academic community. Naturally, the work of creating an inventory includes examining the terms used in practice by researchers in their analyses, and it is reasonable to assume that every time, every society and every paradigm has its own terms to refer to the crimes of communist regimes. Nonetheless, it is possible to establish at this early stage that researchers have long used the word terror to describe the crimes of the Soviet communist regime, regardless of the framework of interpretation to which they adhere. Although the extent to which the mass operations and forced deportations of specific ethnic groups ordered by Stalin before and during the Second World War can be defined as genocide is debated, there is agreement among researchers that the term ‘terror’ is the best reflection of the development of violence in Bolshevik Russia and in the communist Soviet Union under Lenin and Stalin. As a result, terror will be the term most frequently used here in analysing the Soviet communist criminal history. On the other hand, the term terror is seldom used to describe the mass killings in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979, which may be because it is less clear that the actual intention and stated motive of the Khmer Rouge was to terrorise people into submission. The term genocide, however, is relatively widely accepted and established in describing the systematic and selective crimes of the communist regime in Cambodia, although the use of this term is not entirely uncontroversial. Therefore, in analysing the criminal history of Cambodia, this term will be used in precise contexts dealing with the killing of a category of people, whereas more neutral terms such as mass killing and massacre are used to refer to the general use of violence. The terminology used in the Chinese criminal history is dealt with in detail as part of the section on China. … In the Soviet case, as Klas-Göran Karlsson so rightly notes, there is an ‘established term’ for the crimes of the regime, namely ‘terror’ – and this is used almost regardless of the general frameworks of interpretation employed by individual researchers. In the same way, he notes that ‘the term genocide is established and accepted as a description of the crimes of the Khmer Rouge’. In the case of the People’s Republic of China, however, there are no equivalent terms that are accepted or generally established in the academic community and that can be made use of in a research inventory. Bibliographies and search engines all speak their own clear language: those who carried out research on Maoism in its day made very limited use of words such as terror and genocide, and neither do these terms appear among the key terms that carry implicit clear explanations and are therefore regularly used by current foreign and Chinese historians.”
  4. ^ Semelin 2009, p. 318: “‘Classicide’, in counterpoint to genocide, has a certain appeal, but it doesn’t convey the fact that communist regimes, beyond their intention of destroying ‘classes’ – a difficult notion to grasp in itself (what exactly is a ‘kulak’?) – end up making political suspicion a rule of government: even within the Party (and perhaps even mainly within the Party). The notion of ‘fratricide’ is probably more appropriate in this regard. That of ‘politicide’, which Ted Gurr and Barbara Harff suggest, remains the most intelligent, although it implies by contrast that ‘genocide’ is not ‘political’, which is debatable. These authors in effect explain that the aim of politicide is to impose total political domination over a group or a government. Its victims are defined by their position in the social hierarchy or their political opposition to the regime or this dominant group. Such an approach applies well to the political violence of communist powers and more particularly to Pol Pot’s Democratic Kampuchea. The French historian Henri Locard in fact emphasises this, identifying with Gurr and Harff’s approach in his work on Cambodia. However, the term ‘politicide’ has little currency among some researchers because it has no legal validity in international law. That is one reason why Jean-Louis Margolin tends to recognise what happened in Cambodia as ‘genocide’ because, as he points out, to speak of ‘politicide’ amounts to considering Pol Pot’s crimes as less grave than those of Hitler. Again, the weight of justice interferes in the debate about concepts that, once again, argue strongly in favour of using the word genocide. But those so concerned about the issue of legal sanctions should also take into account another legal concept that is just as powerful, and better established: that of crime against humanity. In fact, legal scholars such as Antoine Garapon and David Boyle believe that the violence perpetrated by the Khmer Rouge is much more appropriately categorised under the heading of crime against humanity, even if genocidal tendencies can be identified, particularly against the Muslim minority. This accusation is just as serious as that of genocide (the latter moreover being sometimes considered as a subcategory of the former) and should thus be subject to equally severe sentences. I quite agree with these legal scholars, believing that the notion of ‘crime against humanity’ is generally better suited to the violence perpetrated by communist regimes, a viewpoint shared by Michael Mann.”
  5. ^ Su 2011, pp. 7–8: “Killing civilians in large numbers is an age-old phenomenon. Since World War II, its conceptualization has been shaped by the enormity of the Holocaust, in which Hitler and the Nazi regime killed more than six million Jews. In 1948, the United Nations (UN) passed the ‘Convention of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.’ Lemkin and other framers clearly had the Holocaust in mind when they defined genocide as an act of a nation-state to eliminate an ethnic or national group. Other conceptions of genocide are also preoccupied by central state politics, state-led exterminations, and institutionalized state killers. Later scholars expanded the concept to include cases in which victims are defined other than by ethnic, national, or religious characteristics. Valentino uses the term mass killing instead, and defines it as ‘the intentional killing of a massive number of noncombatants.’ Other concepts such as politicidedemocide, and classicide were developed to address killings in communist countries.”
  6. ^ Weiss-Wendt 2008, p. 42: “The field of comparative genocide studies has grown beyond recognition over the past two decades, though more quantitatively than qualitatively. On the surface, everything looks good: the number of books on genocide has tripled within less than a decade; the field of comparative genocide studies has its own professional association and journals; more and more colleges and universities offer courses on genocide; several research institutions dedicated to the study of genocide have been established. If we are talking numbers, comparative genocide studies are indeed a success. Upon closer examination, however, genocide scholarship is ridden with contradictions. There is barely any other field of study that enjoys so little consensus on defining principles such as definition of genocide, typology, application of a comparative method, and timeframe. Considering that scholars have always put stress on prevention of genocide, comparative genocide studies have been a failure. Paradoxically, nobody has attempted so far to assess the field of comparative genocide studies as a whole. This is one of the reasons why those who define themselves as genocide scholars have not been able to detect the situation of crisis.”
  7. ^ Ott 2011, p. 53: “As is customary in the literature on mass killing of civilians there is a need to restate here what mass killing is about. Although many definitions have been used — ‘genocide’, ‘politicide’ and ‘democide’ — there has emerged a sort of consensus that the term ‘mass killing’ is much more straightforward than either genocide or politicide. Harff (2003) makes a clear distinction from genocide, often used interchangeably with mass killing, by emphasizing the intention of the perpetrator. He [sic] posits: ‘genocide as an authority group’s sustained purposeful implementation or facilitation of policies designed to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group’ (Harff, 2003, p. 58). Although this definition encompasses the ethnic population, the emphasis here is on the objective function of the authority, which is the destruction in whole or part of the intended group. The second definition, politicide, limits the annihilation to a specific group. Politicide pertains when the victimized group is identified by its political opposition to the dominant party, rather than other communal characteristics (Harff, 2003, p. 58). Rummel (1995) advanced the democide label. It is defined as the ‘murder of any person or people by a government including genocide, politicide and mass murder’ (p. 3).”
  8. ^ Semelin 2009, p. 37: “Mann thus establishes a sort of parallel between racial enemies and class enemies, thereby contributing to the debates on comparisons between Nazism and communism. This theory has also been developed by some French historians such as Stéphane Courtois and Jean-Louis Margolin in The Black Book of Communism: they view class genocide as the equivalent to racial genocide. Mann however refuses to use the term ‘genocide’ to describe the crimes committed under communism. He prefers the terms ‘fratricide’ and ‘classicide’, a word he coined to refer to intentional mass killings of entire social classes.”
  9. ^ Rummel 1993: “First, however, I should clarify the term democide. It means for governments what murder means for an individual under municipal law. It is the premeditated killing of a person in cold blood, or causing the death of a person through reckless and wanton disregard for their life. Thus, a government incarcerating people in a prison under such deadly conditions that they die in a few years is murder by the state–democide–as would parents letting a child die from malnutrition and exposure be murder. So would government forced labor that kills a person within months or a couple of years be murder. So would government created famines that then are ignored or knowingly aggravated by government action be murder of those who starve to death. And obviously, extrajudicial executions, death by torture, government massacres, and all genocidal killing be murder. However, judicial executions for crimes that internationally would be considered capital offenses, such as for murder or treason (as long as it is clear that these are not fabricated for the purpose of executing the accused, as in communist show trials), are not democide. Nor is democide the killing of enemy soldiers in combat or of armed rebels, nor of noncombatants as a result of military action against military targets.”
  10. Jump up to:a b Harff 2003, p. 58: “First, the Convention does not include groups of victims defined by their political position or actions. Raphael Lemkin (1944) coined the term genocide and later sought the support of as many states as possible for a legal document that would outlaw mass killings and prescribe sanctions against potential perpetrators. Because the first draft of the Convention, which included political groups, was rejected by the USSR and its allies, the final draft omitted any reference to political mass murder (Le Blanc 1988). The concept of politicide is used here to encompass cases with politically defined victims, consistent with Fein’s (1993b, 12) line of reasoning that ‘mass killings of political groups show similarities in their causes, organization and motives.'”
  11. ^ Williams 2008, p. 190: “A vital element of the evolution of genocide studies is the increased attention devoted to the mass killing of groups not primarily defined by ethnic or religious identities. Most vulnerable minorities around the world had been so defined when Lemkin was crafting his genocide framework, and when UN member states were drafting the Genocide Convention. Such groups continued to be targeted in the post-Second World War period, as in East Pakistan/ Bangladesh in 1971, or Guatemala between 1978 and 1984. But it became increasingly apparent that political groups were on the receiving end of some of the worst campaigns of mass killing, such as the devastating assault on the Indonesian Communist Party in 1965—1966 (with half a million to one million killed), and the brutal campaigns by Latin American and Asian military regimes against perceived dissidents in the 1970s and 1980s. One result of this re-evaluation was that the mass killing by the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia between 1975 and 1978, previously ruled out as genocide or designated an ‘auto-genocide’ because most victims belonged to the same ethnic-Khmer group as their killers, came to be accepted as a classic instance of twentieth-century genocide. Detailed investigations were also launched into the hecatombs of casualties inflicted under Leninism and Stalinism in the post-revolutionary Soviet Union, and by Mao Zedong’s communists in China. In both of these cases—and to some degree in Cambodia as well—the majority of deaths resulted not from direct execution, but from the infliction of ‘conditions of life calculated to bring about [the] physical destruction’ of a group, in the language of Article II(c) of the Genocide Convention. In particular, the devastating famines that struck the Ukraine and other minority regions of the USSR in the early 1930s, and the even greater death-toll—numbering tens of millions—caused by famine during Mao’s ‘Great Leap Forward’ (1958—1962), were increasingly, though not uncontroversially, depicted as instances of mass killing underpinned by genocidal intent.”
  12. Jump up to:a b Hackmann 2009: “A coining of communism as ‘red Holocaust,’ as had been suggested by the Munich Institut fur Zeitgeschichte, did not find much ground, neither in Germany nor elsewhere in international discussions.”
  13. ^ Rosefielde 2010, p. 3: “The Red Holocaust could be defined to include all murders (judicially sanctioned terror-executions), criminal manslaughter (lethal forced labor and ethnic cleansing) and felonious negligent homicide (terror-starvation) incurred from insurrectionary actions and civil wars prior to state seizure, and all subsequent felonious state killings. This treatise, however, limits the Red Holocaust death toll to peacetime state killings, even if communists were responsible for political assassinations, insurrections and civil wars before achieving power, in order to highlight the causal significance of communist economic systems. It also excludes deaths attributable to wartime hostilities after states were founded. As a matter of accounting, the convention excludes Soviet killings before 1929, during World War II (1940-45) and in Germany, occupied Europe, North Korea, Manchuria and the Kuril Islands (1946-53). Killings in China before October 1949 are similarly excluded, as are those in Indochina before 1954. Soviet slaughter of nobles, kulaks, capitalist and the bourgeoisie during War Communism are part of the excluded wartime group, but killings of similar social categories in China, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia after their civil wars in the process of Communist consolidation are included. The summary casualty statistics reported in Table 11.1 conform with this definition and in principle only reflect excess deaths, excluding natural mortality. It provides a comprehensive picture of discretionary communist killings unobscured by wartime exigencies. Others desiring a broader body count to assess the fullest extent of communist carnage can easily supplement the estimates provided here from standard sources.”
  14. ^ Shafir 2016, p. 64: “Alexandra Laignel-Lavastine, who was among the first Western authors to analyze this postcommunist trend in Romania, was noting back in 1999 that ‘The pathos, indeed the intentionally provocative tone of the militant parallelism [between Nazism and communism]’ makes use of the term ‘Red Holocaust’ primarily in order to utilize a notion (Holocaust) that ‘allows the reality it describes to immediately attain, in the Western mind, a status equal to that of the extermination of the Jews by the Nazi regime.’ Furthermore, ‘the spirit of the wording is one of a claim of victimization careful to legitimize itself in a sort of mimetic rivalry with Jewish memory.’ That is the competitive martyrdom component of Double Genocide. But Laignel-Lavastine’s intuitive article also alludes to an ideological basis at the foundations of such efforts. In her opinion, postcommunist Romanian historiography had been captured by (both inter-war and national-communist) ideology.”
  15. ^ Voicu 2018, p. 46: “Beginning in the 1990s the notion of a ‘red Holocaust’ (or a ‘communist Holocaust’) was forged in order to establish–including at the level of terminology–the similarity of the two tragedies. The concept of Holocaust, specific to the history of European Jews (and Roma people and other social categories), was thus extracted from its customary register and used to define a different historical experience with its own specific traits. Leon Volovici rightfully condemned the abusive use of this concept as an attempt to ‘usurp’ and undermine a symbol specific to the history of European Jews. As many of those who use the term ‘red Holocaust’ (and other terms along the same lines, such as ‘the Holocaust of Romanian culture’ and ‘the Holocaust of Romanian people’) do so with antisemitic rancor, claiming that the authors of this ‘Holocaust’ are none other than the Jews, the reason for the hijacking of the term becomes clear: to place the blame on Jews and to manufacture an alternate history. It should be noted that the intelligentsia at the top of Romanian culture does not use the expression ‘red Holocaust’ systematically, but rather accidentally. Gabriela Adameșteanu and Rodica Palade, for instance, once considered this syntagma an innocent ‘metaphor’ that could be used legitimately and fruitfully in the debate about the crimes of the communist regime. However, the two journalists–who at the time they supported this syntagma were at the helm of Revista 22–did not use the expression in later publications. From time to time, the syntagma was used by other intellectuals, too, but most of them have recognized its traps and intentions. Yet, while it is no longer part of their usual vocabulary, something of its spirit is still present in the positions they adopt.”
  16. ^ Staub 2011, p. 100: “In contrast to genocide, I see mass killing as ‘killing (or in other ways destroying) members of a group without the intention to eliminate the whole group, or killing large numbers of people’ without a focus on group membership.”
  17. ^ Charny 1999: In the Encyclopedia of Genocide (1999), Israel Charny defined generic genocide as “the mass killing of substantial numbers of human beings, when not in the course of military action against the military forces of an avowed enemy, under conditions of the essential defenselessness and helplessness of the victims.”; Easterly, Gatti & Kurlat 2006, pp. 129–156: In the 2006 article “Development, Democracy, and Mass Killings”, William Easterly, Roberta Gatti, and Sergio Kurlat adopted Charny’s definition of generic genocide for their use of mass killing and massacre to avoid the politics of the term genocide altogether.
  18. ^ Ulfelder & Valentino 2008, p. 2: “The research described here sprang from an interest in observing and assessing the risk of extreme human-rights violations in the form of large-scale violence perpetrated by states against noncombatant civilians. Researchers working in this area usually use the terms ‘genocide’ or ‘mass killing’ to label their subject of interest, but the definitions of those terms remain a source of heated debate among scholars, international lawyers, and policy-makers. Cognizant of these debates, we considered numerous strategies for defining and observing our phenomenon of interest. Unfortunately, none captured the range of events that we wished to explore as completely and objectively as does a simple numerical threshold of civilian fatalities. For purposes of this research, then, we defined a mass killing as any event in which the actions of state agents result in the intentional death of at least 1,000 noncombatants from a discrete group in a period of sustained violence.”
  19. Jump up to:a b Bellamy 2010, p. 102: “If we look at mass killing since 1945 perpetrated by non-democratic states outside the context of war, we find two basic types of case. The first involved revolutionary communist governments implementing their plans for radical transformation. Over one-third of all the relevant cases (14 of the 38 episodes) were perpetrated by communist governments. According to Benjamin Valentino, communist governments were so exceptionally violent because the social transformations they attempted to engineer required the material dispossession of vast numbers of people. The most radical of these regimes, in China, Cambodia, and North Korea, attempted to completely reorient society, eradicating traditional patterns of life and forcibly imposing a new and alien way of life. Communist objectives, Valentino points out, could only be achieved with violence and the scale of the transformation dictated a massive amount of violence. Of course, communist revolutions also elicited resistance, prompting the state into massive and bloody crackdowns and generating a culture of paranoia which led many regimes to periodically purge their own ranks (China’s ‘cultural revolution’ being a good example). In communist ideology, the good of the party was associated with the national interest, individuals were divested of rights and subordinated to the will of the party leadership, and entire groups (e.g. kulaks in the Soviet Union, merchants and intellectuals in Cambodia) were deemed ‘class enemies’ that could be eradicated en masse to protect the revolution.”
  20. ^ Wayman & Tago 2010, pp. 4, 11, 12–13: “Our term, ‘mass killing’, is used by Valentino (2004: 10), who aptly defines it as ‘the intentional killing of a massive number of noncombatants’. The word ‘noncombatants’ distinguishes mass killing from battle-deaths in war, which occur as combatants fight against each other. The ‘massive number’ he selects as the threshold to mass killing is ‘at least fifty thousand intentional deaths over the course of five or fewer years’ (Valentino, 2004: 11-12), which of course averages to at least 10,000 killed per year. … One reason for selecting these thresholds of 10,000 and 1,000 deaths per year is that we find that in the Harff data on geno-politicide, which are one of our key datasets, there are many cases of over 10,000 killed per year, but also some in which between 1,000 and 10,000 are killed per year. Therefore, analyzing at a 1,000-death threshold (as well as the 10,000 threshold) insures the inclusion of all the Harff cases. Valentino chooses 50,000 over five years as ‘to some extent arbitrary’, but a ‘relatively high threshold’ to create high confidence that mass killing did occur and was deliberate, ‘given the generally poor quality of the data available on civilian fatalities’ (Valentino, 2004: 12). We believe that our similar results, when we lower the threshold to 1,000 killed per year, are an indication that the data in Harff and in Rummel remain reliable down even one power of ten below Valentino’s ‘relatively high’ selected threshold, and we hope that, in that sense, our results can be seen as a friendly amendment to his work, and that they basically lend confidence, based on empirical statistical backing, for the conceptual direction which he elected to take. … Within that constant research design, we then showed that the differences were not due to threshold either (over 10,000 killed per year; over 1,000; or over 1). The only remaining difference is the measure of mass killing itself — democide vs. geno-politicide. We have further shown that (although the onset years vary from Harff to Rummel), when one looks at which sovereign states were involved (and the approximate onset year), the geno politicide data is basically a proper subset of the democide data (as one would expect by the addition of the need to show specific intent in geno-politicide). It would therefore appear (assuming for the moment that there are not any big measurement biases) that autocratic regimes, especially communist, are prone to mass killing generically, but not so strongly inclined (i.e. not statistically significantly inclined) toward geno-politicide.”
  21. ^ Su 2003, p. 4: “Following Valentino (1998), I define mass killing in this paper as ‘the intentional killing of a significant number of the members of any group (as group and its membership are defined by the perpetrator) of non-combatants’ (1998:4). A few elements of this definition are worth further discussion. First, identification of the victim is based on ‘membership,’ as opposed to one that is based on immediate threat. In the case of Cultural Revolution, the membership is based on political standards as opposed to ascriptive traces such as race and ethnicity.4 Second, the intent to kill is imputable in the perpetrator. This separates mass killing from other causes of deaths in the Cultural Revolution such as death resulting from on-stage beating or off-stage beating. In on-stage beating the intention was not to kill but to convey a symbolic message and to humiliate the victims, and the main purpose of off-stage torture for confession was clearly to force a confession. Mass killing also differs from casualties of armed battles, a widespread phenomenon occurring in the earlier stage of the Cultural Revolution. Finally, the criterion of ‘a significant number’ indicates some concentration in terms of time and space of the killing. To use a hypothetical example, we should not judge that mass killings occur if 180 villages of a county kill one person in each village, but we should do so if one of the villages kills more than ten people within one day.”
  22. ^ Su 2011, p. 13: “In another conceptual departure from standard scholarship, I use the term collective killing as opposed to genocide or mass killing. This concept shares three basic premises with genocide or mass killing. First, the criteria for becoming a victim are not about deeds but rather with membership in a group. Second, the killing must be intentional, which is distinct from acts of endangerment that carry no goal of killing in the first place. Using torture to elicit confessions, for example, may cause significant numbers of deaths. Third, the number of victims must reach a certain level. This aspect is very much related to the first premise regarding membership: Individuals are rounded up because they are members of a particular group, which by definition results in a collective of victims. I replace the word mass with collective for analysis of units smaller than a country as a whole, for example, county. Collective killings may occur in smaller areas without meeting the criteria suggested by Valentino of ‘at least fifty thousand intentional deaths over the course of five or fewer years.’ With this more fine-grained conceptual approach, it is also possible to compare collective killings across counties, townships, and villages.”
  23. ^ Wayman & Tago 2010, p. 4: “The two important scholars who have created datasets related to this are Rummel (1995) and Harff (2003). Harff (sometimes with Gurr) has studied what she terms ‘genocide and politicide’, defined to be genocide by killing as understood by the Genocide Convention plus the killing of a political or economic group (Harff & Gurr, 1988); the combined list of genocides is sometimes labeled ‘geno-politicide’ for short. Rummel (1994, 1995) has a very similar concept, ‘democide’, which includes such genocide and geno-politicide done by the government forces, plus other killing by government forces, such as random killing not targeted at a particular group. As Rummel (1995: 3-4) says, ‘Cold-blooded government killing … extends beyond genocide’; For example, ‘shooting political opponents; or murdering by quota’. Hence, ‘to cover all such murder as well as genocide and politicide, I use the concept democide. This is the intentional killing of people by government’ (Rummel, 1995: 4). So Rummel has a broader concept than geno-politicide, but one that seems to include geno-politicide as a proper subset.”
  24. ^ Midlarsky 2005, pp. 22, 309, 310: “I distinguish between genocide as the systematic mass murder of people based on ethnoreligious identity, and politicide as the large-scale killing of designated enemies of the state based on socioeconomic or political criteria. Although genocide can be understood to be a species of politicide (but not the converse), in practice, genocidal (i.e., ethnoreligious) killings tap into much deeper historical roots of the human condition. In this distinction, I follow Harff and Gurr 1988, 360. … Turning to Cambodia, the mass killings in that country during Pol Pot’s murderous regime are often characterized with other seemingly identical circumstances. Cambodia and Rwanda, for example, are typically treated as genocides that differ little from each other in essential characteristics. However, the victimization rates for the two countries are similar only when treated as proportions of the total country population systematically murdered. Although the mass murders in Cambodia are frequently characterized as genocide, I argue that in fact genocidal activity was only a small proportion of the killing and that the vast majority of Cambodians died in a politicide, substantially different in origin from the genocides we have been examining. The matter of etiology lies at the root of my distinction here, not definitional semantics. If we lump the Cambodian case other instances of systematized mass murder, then the sources of all of them become hopelessly muddled. … Essentially, I argue that genocides stem from a primitive identification of the ‘collective enemy’ in Carl Schmitt’s sense, whereas politicides, at least of the Cambodian variety, are attributable to more detailed ideological considerations. Further, the Cambodian case falls under the rubric of state killings, having a particular affinity with earlier practices in the Soviet Union and China. Indeed, an arc of Communist politicide can be traced from the western portions of the Soviet Union to China and on to Cambodia. Not all Communist states participated in extensive politicide, but the particular circumstances of Cambodia in 1975 lent themselves to the commission of systematic mass murder. Because an element of Cambodian state insecurity existed in this period, especially vis-à-vis Vietnam, a genocidal element is found in the killing of non-Khmer peoples such as the Vietnamese, who comprised a small proportion of the total.”
  25. ^ Rummel 1993: “Even were we to have total access to all communist archives we still would not be able to calculate precisely how many the communists murdered. Consider that even in spite of the archival statistics and detailed reports of survivors, the best experts still disagree by over 40 percent on the total number of Jews killed by the Nazis. We cannot expect near this accuracy for the victims of communism. We can, however, get a probable order of magnitude and a relative approximation of these deaths within a most likely range.”
  26. Jump up to:a b Bradley 2017, pp. 151–153: “The relationship between human rights and communism in both theory and practice has often been in tension. In the ideational realm, Karl Marx famously dismissed the rights of man as a bourgeois fantasy that masked the systemic inequality of the capitalist system. ‘None of the supposed rights of man,’ Marx wrote, ‘go beyond the egoistic man, man as he is, as a member of civil society … withdrawn into himself, wholly preoccupied with his private interest and acting in accordance with his private caprice.’ Rights and liberties in bourgeois society, he argued, provided only an illusory unity behind which social conflict and inequalities deepened. Rhetorically, the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China and most of the rest of the communist world followed Marx’s lead. As the Chinese argued in 1961, ‘the ‘human rights’ referred to by bourgeois international law and the ‘human rights’ it intends to protect are the rights of the bourgeoisie to enslave and to oppress the labouring people … [and] provide pretexts for imperialist opposition to socialist and nationalist countries. They are reactionary from head to toe.’ Rejecting Enlightenment-era inalienable individual political and civil rights, communist states instead championed collective economic and social rights. The Soviets grew fond of annually celebrating International Human Rights Day, to mark the anniversary of the 1948 adoption of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by offering lectures to its citizens that contrasted the promotion of socialist rights in the Soviet Union with their violations in the capitalist world. And yet state-orchestrated mass killings and what have come to be called gross violations of human rights were at times almost commonplace in communist-led states. Between 1933 and 1945, more than a million people died in the Soviet Gulag system and likely at least 6 million more in politically induced Soviet famines, Stalin’s mass executions in the great terror and in what Timothy Snyder has termed the ‘bloodlands’ of Poland, the Baltic states, Ukraine, Belarus and the western edges of Russia. In Mao’s China, as many as 45 million Chinese died of famine during the Great Leap Forward, while some 2.5 million were killed or tortured to death. During the Cultural Revolution, between 750,000 and 1.5 million were killed. In Pol Pot’s Cambodia, 200,000 were executed and between 1.4 million and 2.2 million of the country’s 7 million people died of disease and starvation. If the precise numbers have always been, and continue to be, in dispute, their order of magnitude is not. In fact the entanglements between human rights and communism in the twentieth century were more ambiguous than the chasm between ideology and these staggering numbers would suggest. The meanings of human rights themselves remained unstable over much of the second half of the century, as did the actors in the communist world who engaged with them. What promises of global human rights like those contained in the Universal Declaration might portend and the very claims about what constituted human rights were not fixed. Nor was the significance of human rights for the making of international politics or local lives as they were lived on the ground at all clear. The relationship between human rights and international communism after 1945 became fluid. In the immediate postwar period, the Soviet Union played an active role in the creation of a global human rights order in the drafting of the Universal Declaration and the Genocide Convention and participating in the Nuremberg Trials. With the coming of decolonization, the Soviets and the Chinese would also help to open out the meanings of international human rights toward the rights of postcolonial self-determination and development. But human rights in the communist world largely became a polemical state posture within the broader Cold War ideological struggle. Indeed, the international project of human rights itself became a muted practice by the 1950s.”
  27. Jump up to:a b c d e Valentino 2005, p. 275: “Rudolph J. Rummel, Death by Government (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994), p. 15. A team of six French historians coordinated by Stéphane Courtois estimates that communist regimes are responsible for between 85 and 100 million deaths. See Martin Malia, ‘Foreword: The Uses of Atrocity,’ in Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), p. x. Zbigniew Brzezinski estimates that ‘the failed effort to build communism’ cost the lives of almost sixty million people. See Zbigniew Brzezinski, Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1993), p. 16. Matthew White estimates eighty-one million deaths from communist ‘genocide and tyranny’ and ‘man-made famine.’ See Matthew White, ‘Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century,’ [June 2002]. Todd Culbertson estimates that communist regimes killed ‘perhaps 100 million’ people. See Todd Culbertson, ‘The Human Cost of World Communism,’ Human Events, August 19, 1978, pp. 10-11. These estimates should be considered at the highest end of the plausible range of deaths attributable to communist regimes.”
  28. ^ Culbertson 1978, pp. 10–11: “Available evidence indicates that perhaps 100 million persons have been destroyed by the Communists; the imperviousness of the Iron and Bamboo curtains prevents a more definitive figure. The Communist system of forced starvation, concentration camps, and slave labor is remarkably similar to that of the Nazis, whose policies claimed approximately six million Jewish victims. … This is an incomplete accounting of Communist genocide. Since the Russian Revolution 61 years ago communism has been responsible for the death of 100 million innocent persons – not including the terrorism inspired by Communists in free countries. The total cost of human suffering and grief is beyond comprehension.”
  29. ^ Lenczowski 1985: “The human cost of communism exceeds most Americans’ expectations. The number of people murdered by communist regimes is estimated at between 60 million and 150 million, with the higher figure probably more accurate in light of recent scholarship. The greatest tide of refugees in world history flows from communist states to noncommunist ones: Today it comes from Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Indochina, East Europe, and Nicaragua. (During the entire Vietnam war there was nary a refugee fleeing from Indochina. It was not until communism triumphed that life became so unbearable that people who could withstand decades of war fled to the seas.) Communism invented the concentration camp. Millions have been imprisoned and executed, have worked and starved to death, in these camps. Communist regimes will not permit enterprising Western reporters near these camps, so you don’t hear about them on the news. Communist regimes recognize no restraint on their absolute power. From this they establish ideological falsehoods as the standards of right and wrong and the standards by which deviationism is measured; from this stems the systematic denial of all individual human rights. The quality of life always deteriorates under communism: the militarization of society; the destruction of the consumer economy; the rationing of food; the deterioration of housing and insufficient new construction to meet population growth; the destruction of medical care through lack of medicine and medical supplies; the destruction of religion; the destruction and political control of education and culture; the rewriting of history and destruction of monuments to the national heritage; and the assault on family life and parental jurisdiction over children.”
  30. ^ Brzezinski 2010, pp. 12–16: “Because of Lenin – through mass executions during and after civil war, through massive deaths in the Gulag initiated under Lenin’s direction (and powerfully documented in Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago), and through mass famines induced by ruthless indifference (with Lenin callously dismissing as unimportant the deaths of ‘the half-savage, stupid, difficult people of the Russian villages’) – it can be estimated that between 6-8,000,000 people perished. That number subsequently was more or less tripled by Stalin, who caused, it has been conservatively estimated, the deaths of no less than 20,000,000 people, and perhaps even upward of 25,000,000. … Though the precise figures for Stalin’s toll will never be available, it is unlikely that the range of 20-25,000,000 victims is an exaggeration. Census statistics also indicate that additionally the biological depletion of the Soviet population during Stalin’s reign was even higher. The estimated number of killings cited above, in any case, accounts for Stalin’s direct genocide. Demographic depletion – because of reduced birthrates, loss of offspring because of higher infant mortality, births that did not take place because of imprisonment of a would-be parent, etc. – certainly had to be in excess of even the enormous toll directly attributable to Stalin personally. … Accounting for the human losses in China during the most violent phases of the communist experiment is an even more difficult task. Unlike the exposure of Stalin’s crimes in the Soviet Union (and the much delayed and the still somewhat reticent exposure of Lenin’s crimes), the Chinese regime persists in regarding the Maoist phase as relatively sacrosanct, with its killings justified but with their scale kept secret. The only exception is the cultural revolution of the late 1960s and early 1970s, from which the current Chinese rulers suffered directly. For this phase of internal violence some estimates have surfaced, and they suggest deaths on the scale of 1-2,000,000. For the earlier phases, notably the 1950s, there have been broad estimates of as many as several million executed as ‘enemies of the people’ – mostly landlords and richer bourgeoisie as well as former Kuomintang officials and officers. In addition, the figure of up to 27,000,000 peasants who perished as a consequence of the forcible collectivization has often been cited. Given the size of the Chinese population, and the indifference to human life of the current regime, the estimate of about 29,000,000 as the human cost of the communist era is in all probability on the low side, especially as it does not take into account the net loss to China’s population because of the demographic impact of such mass killings. This ghastly ledger would not be complete without some accounting of the price in human lives paid for the attempts to construct communist utopias in Eastern Europe, North Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Cuba. It is a safe estimate that these consumed at least 3,000,000 victims, with Cambodia under Pol Pot alone accounting for one-third. Thus the total might actually be higher. In brief, the failed effort to build communism in the twentieth century consumed the lives of almost 60,000,000 human beings, making communism the most costly human failure in all of history.”
  31. ^ Courtois 1999, p. 4: “Thus we have delimited crimes against civilians as the essence of the phenomenon of terror. These crimes tend to fit a recognizable pattern even if the practices vary to some extent by regime. The pattern includes execution by various means, such as firing squads, hanging, drowning, battering, and, in certain cases, gassing, poisoning, or ‘car accidents’; destruction of the population by starvation, through man-made famine, the withholding of food, or both; deportation, through which death can occur in transit (either through physical exhaustion or through confinement in an enclosed space), at one’s place of residence, or through forced labor (exhaustion, illness, hunger, cold). Periods described as times of ‘civil war’ are more complex – it is not always easy to distinguish between events caused by fighting between rulers and rebels and events that can be properly described only as a massacre of the civilian population. Nonetheless, we have to start somewhere. The following rough approximation, based on unofficial estimates, gives some sense of the scale and gravity of these crimes:USSR: 20 million deathsChina: 65 million deathsVietnam: 1 million deathsNorth Korea: 2 million deathsCambodia: 2 million deathsEastern Europe: 1 million deathsLatin America: 150,000 deathsAfrica: 1.7 million deathsAfghanistan: 1.5 million deathsthe international Communist movement and Communist parties not in power: about 10,000 deaths.”
  32. ^ Malia 1999, p. x: “The Black Book offers us the first attempt to determine, overall, the actual magnitude of what occurred, by systematically detailing Leninism’s ‘crimes, terror, and repression’ from Russia in 1917 to Afghanistan in 1989. This factual approach puts Communism in what is, after all, its basic human perspective. For it was in truth a ‘tragedy of planetary dimensions’ (in the French publisher’s characterization), with a grand total of victims variously estimated by contributors to the volume at between 85 million and 100 million. Either way, the Communist record offers the most colossal case of political carnage in history. And when this fact began to sink in with the French public, an apparently dry academic work became a publishing sensation, the focus of impassioned political and intellectual debate. The shocking dimensions of the Communist tragedy, however, are hardly news to any serious student of twentieth-century history, at least when the different Leninist regimes are taken individually. The real news is that at this late date the truth should come as such a shock to the public at large.”
  33. ^ Karlsson & Schoenhals 2008, pp. 53–54: “Bearing in mind the charged nature of the subject, it is polemically effective to make such comparisons, but it does not seem particularly fruitful, neither morally nor scientifically, to judge the regimes on the basis of their ‘dangerousness’ or to assess the relationship between communism and Nazism on the basis of what the international academic community calls their ‘atrocities toll’ or ‘body count’. In that case, should the crimes of all communist regimes, in the Soviet Union, China, Cambodia and other countries where communism is or has been the dominant party, be compared to the Nazi regime’s massacre of six million Jews? Should the Nazi death toll also include the tens of millions of people who the German Nazi armies and their supporting troops killed during the Second World War? Not even Courtois’ analytical qualification, that ranking the two regimes the same is based on the idea that the ‘weapon of hunger’ was used systematically by both the Nazi regime and a number of communist regimes, makes this more reasonable, since this ‘weapon’ on the whole played a very limited role in the Nazi genocide in relation to other types of methods of mass destruction, and in relation to how it was used by communist regimes.”
  34. Jump up to:a b Valentino 2005, p. 91: “Communist regimes have been responsible for this century’s most deadly episodes of mass killing. Estimates of the total number of people killed by communist regimes range as high as 110 million. In this chapter I focus primarily on mass killings in the Soviet Union, China, and Cambodia — history’s most murderous communist states. Communist violence in these three states alone may account for between 21 million and 70 million deaths. Mass killings on a smaller scale also appear to have been carried out by communist regimes in North Korea, Vietnam, Eastern Europe, and Africa.”
  35. ^ Valentino 2005, p. 75: Table 2: Communist Mass Killings in the Twentieth CenturySoviet Union (1917-23) … 250,000-2,500,000Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (1927-45) … 10,000,000-20,000,000China (including Tibet) (1949-72) … 10,000,000-46,000,000Cambodia (1975-79) … 1,000,000-2,000,000Possible cases:Bulgaria (1944-?) … 50,000-100,000East Germany (1945-?) … 80,000-100,000Romania (1945-?) … 60,000-300,000North Korea (1945-?) … 400,000-1,500,000North and South Vietnam (1953-?) … 80,000-200,000″Note: All figures in this and subsequent tables are author’s estimates based on numerous sources. Episodes are listed under the heading ‘possible cases’ in this and subsequent tables when the available evidence suggests a mass killing may have occurred, but documentation is insufficient to make a definitive judgement regarding the number of people killed, the intentionality of the killing, or the motives of the perpetrators.”
  36. ^ White 2011, pp. 455–456: “For those who prefer totals broken down by country, here are reasonable estimates for the number of people who died under Communist regimes from execution, labor camps, famine, ethnic cleansing, and desperate flight in leaky boats:
    • China: 40,000,000
    • Soviet Union: 20,000,000
    • North Korea: 3,000,000
    • Ethiopia: 2,000,000
    • Cambodia: 1,700,000
    • Vietnam: 365,000 (after 1975)
    • Yugoslavia: 175,000
    • East Germany: 100,000
    • Romania: 100,000
    • North Vietnam: 50,000 (internally, 1954-75)
    • Cuba: 50,000
    • Mongolia: 35,000
    • Poland: 30,000
    • Bulgaria: 20,000
    • Czechoslovakia: 11,000
    • Albania: 5,000
    • Hungary: 5,000
    • Rough Total: 70 million
    (This rough total doesn’t include the 20 million killed in the civil wars that brought Communists into power, or the 11 million who died in the proxy wars of the Cold War. Both sides probably share the blame for these to a certain extent. These two categories overlap somewhat, so once the duplicates are weeded out, it seems that some 26 million people died in Communist-inspired wars.)”
  37. ^ Bellamy 2012, p. 949: “Between 1945 and 1989, communist regimes massacred literally millions of civilians. A conservative estimate puts the total number of civilians deliberately killed by communists after the Second World War between 6.7 million and 15.5 million people, with the true figure probably much higher. Communist governments in China and Cambodia embarked on programs of radical social transformation and killed, tortured or allowed to starve whole groups that were thought hostile to change or simply unworthy of life. In the Soviet Union, Albania, North Korea, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Yugoslavia and China, communist governments used sometimes massive levels of indiscriminate violence against civilians to deter and defeat actual and imagined opponents and/or exact revenge for the Second World War. Where communist governments were violently challenged, they exhibited little concern for civilian immunity, as evidenced by the Soviet assaults on Hungary and Afghanistan and North Korea’s conduct in the Korean War. Finally, communism spawned violent non-state actors, such as the Red Brigades and Bader-Meinhoffer gang in Europe, Shining Path in Peru, and FARC in Colombia, all of which deliberately targeted non-combatants.”
  38. ^ Strauss 2014, pp. 360–361: “For some areas, there is now a beginning of scholarly convergence on raw numbers. Most are now willing to accept a rough number of around 20 million including famine victims for the Soviet Union, and provisionally somewhere between 2 and 3 million for Cambodia, of whom roughly half were executed outright. In other environments such as China, there is still little consensus on numbers of total victims of Maoist revolutionary policies; for the Great Leap Forward alone, estimates of excess deaths range from 15 to 40 million.”
  39. ^ Dissident 2016: “A brief survey returns the following high and low estimates for the number of people who died at the hand of communist regimes:China: 29,000,000 (Brzezinski) to 78,860,000 (Li)USSR: 7,000,000 (Tolz) to 69,500,000 (Panin)North Korea: 1,600,000 (Rummel, Lethal Politics; figure for killings) to 3,500,000 (Hwang Jang-Yop, cited in AFP; figure for famine)Cambodia: 740,000 (Vickery) to 3,300,000 (Math Ly, cited in AP)Africa: 1,700,000 (Black Book) to 2,000,000 (Fitzgerald; Ethiopia only)Afghanistan: 670,000 (Zucchino) to 2,000,000 (Katz)Eastern Europe: 1,000,000Vietnam: 1,000,000 (Black Book) to 1,670,000 (Rummel, Death by Government)Latin America: 150,000International Movements not in power: 10,000The combined range based on the estimates considered, which derive from scholarly works, works of journalism, memoirs, and government-provided figures, spans from 42,870,000 to 161,990,000. While reasonable people will disagree in good faith on where the true number happens to lie, any number within this range ought to provoke horror and condemnation. And as previously mentioned, these figures estimate only the number of people who perished, not those who were merely tortured, maimed, imprisoned, relocated, expropriated, impoverished, or bereaved. These many millions are victims of communism too. The commonly cited figure of the deaths caused by communist regimes, 100 million, falls midway through this range of estimates. As scholars continue to research the history of the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, and other communist regimes, and as they gain access to previously inaccessible records, the scale of communist crimes will gradually come into even sharper focus.Works ConsultedBrzezinski, Zbigniew. Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the 21st Century. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010.Courtois, Stéphane, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartošek, and Jean-Louis Marolin. The Black Book of Communism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.’Cambodians Recall Massacres.’ AP, May 22, 1987.Fitzgerald, Mary Anne. ‘Tyrant for the taking.’ The Times (London), April 20, 1991.Katz, Lee Michael. ‘Afghanistan’s President is Ousted.’ USA Today, April 17, 1992.Li, Cheng-Chung. ‘The Question of Human Rights on China Mainland. Republic of China: World Anti-Communist League’, 1979.Panin, Dimitri. Translated by John Moore. The Notebooks of Sologdin. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976.Rummel, R. J. Death by Government. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994.Rummel, R. J. Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1990.Tolz, Vera. ‘Ministry of Security Official Gives New Figures for Stalin’s Victims.’ Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report. May 1, 1992. (The figure of seven million direct executions under Stalin, given by a member of the security services heading a commission for rehabilitation, may be taken as an absolute baseline figure to which should be added the many deaths suffered by labor camp inmates and the deaths preceding and following the Stalin period.)’Top defector says famine has killed over three million Koreans.’ Agence France Presse, March 13, 1999.Vickery, Michael. Cambodia 1975 – 1982. Boston: South End Press, 1984.Zucchino, David. ‘The Americans … They Just Drop Their Bombs and Leave.’ Los Angeles Times, June 2, 2002.Matthew White’s website Necrometrics provides a useful compilation of scholarly estimates of the death toll of major historical events.”
  40. ^ Kotkin 2017: “But a century of communism in power—with holdouts even now in Cuba, North Korea and China—has made clear the human cost of a political program bent on overthrowing capitalism. Again and again, the effort to eliminate markets and private property has brought about the deaths of an astounding number of people. Since 1917—in the Soviet Union, China, Mongolia, Eastern Europe, Indochina, Africa, Afghanistan and parts of Latin America—communism has claimed at least 65 million lives, according to the painstaking research of demographers. Communism’s tools of destruction have included mass deportations, forced labor camps and police-state terror—a model established by Lenin and especially by his successor Joseph Stalin. It has been widely imitated. Though communism has killed huge numbers of people intentionally, even more of its victims have died from starvation as a result of its cruel projects of social engineering.”
  41. ^ Aronson 2003, pp. 222‒245: “But most of these problems pale in significance compared with the book’s opening and closing chapters, which caused enormous controversy and even occasioned a break among The Black Book’s authors. … Courtois’s figures for the Soviet Union, Vietnam, and Latin America go far beyond the estimates of the authors themselves, as does Courtois’s final body count. … But two other theses created considerable consternation and have come to be associated with The Black Book: the figure of 100 million deaths and the parallel with Nazism. They became central in the debate that followed. … In articles and interviews Werth and Margolin pointed out how, in the service of this goal, Courtois distorted and exaggerated: Werth’s total, including the Civil War and the famine of 1932–1933 had been five million less than Courtois’s ‘mythical number,’ while Margolin denied having spoken of the Vietnamese Communists being responsible for one million deaths. Interviewed in Le Monde, Margolin likened Courtois’s effort to ‘militant political activity, indeed, that of a prosecutor amassing charges in the service of a cause, that of a global condemnation of the Communist phenomenon as an essentially criminal phenomenon.’ Both rejected the comparison between Communism and Nazism: … .”
  42. ^ Engel-Di Mauro 2021: “A petulant upsurge in anti-communism is permeating the United States (US) and Canada, as well as countries in the European Union (EU). Its main truncheon is the simultaneously fictitious and slanderous claim that communism caused 100 million victims, a catchy slogan sensationalised through a 1997 propaganda volume titled The Black Book of Communism (henceforth BBC). It suits a more recent China-bashing campaign, where the Communist Party of China is purposefully conflated with communism.”
  43. ^ Courtois 1999, p. xiv: “On the one side, commentators in the liberal Le Monde argue that it is illegitimate to speak of a single Communist movement from Phnom Penh to Paris. Rather, the rampage of the Khmer Rouge is like the ethnic massacres of third-world Rwanda, or the ‘rural’ Communism of Asia is radically different from the ‘urban’ Communism of Europe; or Asian Communism is really only anticolonial nationalism. … [C]onflating sociologically diverse movements is merely a stratgem to obtain a higher body count against Communism, and thus against all the left.”
  44. ^ Engel-Di Mauro 2021: “In this discussion I want to draw attention to the fact that, since the time of the Russian Revolution, capitalist institutions as a whole have caused close to 158 million deaths by waging war alone, with liberal democratic varieties of capitalism contributing at least 56 million of those fatalities. This monstrous impact, unprecedented in the history of humanity, doubtless reaches hundreds of millions more deaths when the centuries of genocides and slavery systems are considered and when murders in the home, at work, in prisons, and in the streets (including by police) are counted as well. Because studies on the level of morbidity associated with capitalist relations are scarce and limited, war-related deaths provide an arguably less assailable set of figures to oppose anti-communist libels.”
  45. ^ Ghodsee & Sehon 2018: “But the problem for the anti-communists is that their general premise can be used as the basis for an equally good argument against capitalism, an argument that the so-called losers of economic transition in eastern Europe would be quick to affirm. The US, a country based on a free-market capitalist ideology, has done many horrible things: the enslavement of millions of Africans, the genocidal eradication of the Native Americans, the brutal military actions taken to support pro-Western dictatorships, just to name a few. The British Empire likewise had a great deal of blood on its hands: we might merely mention the internment camps during the second Boer War and the Bengal famine. This is not mere ‘whataboutism’, because the same intermediate premise necessary to make their anti-communist argument now works against capitalism: … .”
  46. ^ Jahanbegloo 2014, pp. 117–118: “Most interesting, however, is Finlay’s argument that Marxist thought, beyond justifying and excusing the use of violence, also legitimates it. Finlay (ibid. p. 378) argues that this is done by ‘undermining existing moral norms and suggesting that new ones will be created to suit a new proletarian order.’ Marx argues that norms and ethics are determined by the dominating class of the time, as can be illustrated in Lenin’s statement that ‘Honesty is a bourgeoisie virtue’, meaning that honesty is crucial to the existence of bourgeoisie, as other virtues such as loyalty and obedience were necessary virtues during the reign of the feudal aristocracy. This impacts the concept of justice in war dramatically. As there is the assumption that a new social order is to be created, along with a new set of moral and ethical codes, then the current ones may be discarded. Therefore, Finley (ibid.) states that it would be conceivable for revolutionaries to commit atrocious crimes in bringing about a socialist system, with the belief that their crimes will be retroactively absolved by the new system of ethics put in place by the proletariat. Finley also addresses an alternative opinion, that of Shlomo Avineri, who believes that this may be a non-issue when one takes into account the universality of the proletariat. This universality means that it has no active class-based or sectarian interest, or, rather, that its interests represent those of all society. Its major interest is simply to ‘eliminate all other special interests on the basis of which it suffers oppression’ and is an entirely negative entirely (ibid., p. 379). Therefore, our conception of ethics and morality – the product of a capitalist society – is inaccurate. Being based on the interest of the bourgeoisie rather than a true and authentic reflection of the ethics of a universal class, its contravention is not something to be lamented. Finley understands Avineri as drawing two conclusions. First, that:whatever the bourgeoisie with its individualistic and legalistic conception of political ethics and legality has to say about the morality of violence is likely to be invalid since it reflects the particular class interests and therefore the perverted humanism of its proponents. (Ibid., p. 370)and, moreover, that only ethical claims of the proletariat are valid, insofar as they are the true reflections of ‘the perspective of the last social class, at its final revolutionary stage of oppression’ (ibid.). It is only then that morals and ethics can be created authentically, and all other systems ought to be considered as arbitrary. However, this creates a major difficulty for Finlay and, as Marx has inspired many other theorists (Žižek, Fanon, Sorel, etc.) this is a difficulty which he identifies in each of their works as well. Understanding that revolutionary violence is carried out in the hope of future absolution based on a hypothetical social order able to craft a universal system of ethics, Finlay sees this as carte blanche for revolutionists to carry out any action, however atrocious, so long as it helps bring about this imminent revolution. Finlay’s ‘permissive doctrine’ is a ‘philosophical framework within which the possibility of using violence is validated but without setting any clear limits to how much violence can be used and against whom’. Finlay also argue that there is a tendency for excess, as Fanon, Sorel and Žižek all see the use of violence as beneficial, since it may act as a spark for the revolution. Finlay sees the total legitimation of violence in revolution, with no principle of restriction, to be both dangerous and unethical.”
  47. ^ Jahanbegloo 2014, pp. 120–121: “Singh makes a principled argument: that Marx saw the use of violence, even when it is avoidable, as required insofar as that it has a purging quality, believing that only by using violence can all elements of the previous regime be eradicated. Moreover, Singh (ibid., p. 14) considers Marx’s references to the use of bourgeoisie democratic institutions to bring about social change only as ‘hinting to the possibility of the working class coming into power, in England, through universal suffrage’. Furthermore, he quotes Engels in a letter addressed to the Communist Committee in Brussels in October 1846. In this letter, Engels states that there cannot be any means of carrying out the communist agenda ‘other than a democratic revolution by force’ (ibid. p. 10). Singh, however, does acknowledge the desire in Marx to avoid a bloody revolution. Singh (ibid. p. 11) notes that most Marxist writing that alluded to the possibility of this transition being carried out peacefully took place before the events of 1844-48, which ‘showed that a peaceful change was not even remotely possible’. After 1848, Singh notes a return to advocating a violent revolution due to what Singh identifies as the ‘practical considerations’ of being unable to overcome the existing obstacles to a peaceful transition. Singh (ibid. p. 13) writes that, in 1848, Marx published an article titled The Victory of Counter-Revolution in Vienna, where he states ‘there is only one means by which the murderous death agonies of the old society and the bloody birth throes of the new society can be shortened, simplified and concentrated – and that is by revolutionary terror’.”
  48. ^ The Magyar Struggle: “Among all the large and small nations of Austria, only three standard-bearers of progress took an active part in history, and still retain their vitality — the Germans, the Poles and the Magyars. Hence they are now revolutionary. All the other large and small nationalities and peoples are destined to perish before long in the revolutionary world storm. For that reason they are now counter-revolutionary. … There is no country in Europe which does not have in some corner or other one or several ruined fragments of peoples, the remnant of a former population that was suppressed and held in bondage by the nation which later became the main vehicle of historical development. These relics of a nation mercilessly trampled under foot in the course of history, as Hegel says, these residual fragments of peoples always become fanatical standard-bearers of counter-revolution and remain so until their complete extirpation or loss of their national character, just as their whole existence in general is itself a protest against a great historical revolution. Such, in Scotland, are the Gaels, the supporters of the Stuarts from 1640 to 1745. Such, in France, are the Bretons, the supporters of the Bourbons from 1792 to 1800. Such, in Spain, are the Basques, the supporters of Don Carlos. Such, in Austria, are the pan-Slavist Southern Slavs, who are nothing but the residual fragment of peoples, resulting from an extremely confused thousand years of development. … The Magyars are not yet defeated. But if they fall, they will fall gloriously, as the last heroes of the 1848 revolution, and only for a short time. Then for a time the Slav counter-revolution will sweep down on the Austrian monarchy with all its barbarity, and the camarilla will see what sort of allies it has. But at the first victorious uprising of the French proletariat, which Louis Napoleon is striving with all his might to conjure up, the Austrian Germans and Magyars will be set free and wreak a bloody revenge on the Slav barbarians. The general war which will then break out will smash this Slav Sonderbund and wipe out all these petty hidebound nations, down to their very names. The next world war will result in the disappearance from the face of the earth not only of reactionary classes and dynasties, but also of entire reactionary peoples. And that, too, is a step forward.”
  49. ^ Revel 2009, pp. 94–95: “Already among the most authentic sources of socialist thought, among the earliest doctrinarians, are found justifications for ethnic cleansing and genocide, along with the totalitarian state, all of which were held up as legitimate and even necessary weapons for the success and preservation of the revolution. Socialism’s canonical principles were not at all violated by Stalin or Mao when they implemented their murderous policies; on the contrary, Stalin and Mao were scrupulous in applying these principles with perfect fidelity to the letter and the spirit of the doctrine – as has been rigorously established by the Cambridge scholar George Watson in his treatise on The Lost Literature of Socialism. In the modern historiography of socialism, an essential part of the theory has been quite effectively suppressed. The true believers, while claiming socialism’s founding fathers as their mentors, very early on dispensed with any thorough study of them, even of Marx himself. And today, the key texts seem to enjoy the rare privilege of being understood by everyone, without having been read in their entirety by anyone – not even by socialism’s adversaries, who for fear of reprisal are likely to quell their own curiosity. (History for the most part is a selective rearrangement of the facts, and the history of ideas does not escape this general law.) Study of the unexpurgated texts, writes Watson, shows us that “Genocide was an idea unique to socialism.” Friedrich Engels, in an article penned in 1849 for the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, a periodical edited by his friend Karl Marx, called for the extermination of the Hungarians, who had risen up against Austria. He had a low opinion also of Serbs and other Slavic peoples, and of the Basques, the Bretons and the Scottish Highlanders – all problems that needed to be eliminated. Three-quarters of a century later, in his On Lenin and Leninism (1924), Stalin would recommend study of Engels’ influential piece. Marx himself, in “Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany,” published in the Neue Rheinische Zeitung in 1852, asked how “those moribund peoples, the Bohemians, the Carinthians, the Dalmatians etc.,” might be disposed of.”
  50. ^ Valentino 2005, pp. 91, 93: “Communism has a bloody record, but most regimes that have described themselves as communist or have been described as such by others have not engaged in mass killing. In addition to shedding light on why some communist states have been among the most violent regimes in history, therefore, I also seek to explain why other communist countries have avoided this level of violence. … I argue that radical communist regimes have proven such prodigious killers primarily because the social change they sought to bring about have resulted in the sudden and nearly complete material and political dispossession of millions of people. These regimes practiced social engineering of the highest order. It is the revolutionary desire to bring about the rapid and radical transformation of society that distinguishes radical communist regimes from all other forms of government, including less violent communist regimes and noncommunist, authoritarian governments.”
  51. ^ Semelin 2009, p. 331: “Dynamics of destruction/subjugation were also developed systematically by twentieth-century communist regimes, but against a very different domestic political background. The destruction of the very foundations of the former society (and consequently the men and women who embodied it) reveals the determination of the ruling elites to build a new one at all costs. The ideological conviction of leaders promoting such a political scheme is thus decisive. Nevertheless, it would be far too simplistic an interpretation to assume that the sole purpose of inflicting these various forms of violence on civilians could only aim at instilling a climate of terror in this ‘new society’. In fact, they are part of a broader whole, i.e. the spectrum of social engineering techniques implememted in order to transform a society completely. There can be no doubt that it is this utopia of a classless society which drives that kind of revolutionary project. The plan for political and social reshaping will thus logically claim victims in all strata of society. And through this process, communist systems emerging in the twentieth century ended up destroying their own populations, not because they planned to annihilate them as such, but because they aimed to restructure the ‘social body’ from top to bottom, even if that meant purging it and recarving it to suit their new Promethean political imaginaire.”
  52. ^ Chirot & McCauley 2010, p. 42: “The modern search for a perfect, utopian society, whether racially or ideologically pure is very similar to the much older striving for a religiously pure society free of all polluting elements, and these are, in turn, similar to that other modern utopian notion – class purity. Dread of political and economic pollution by the survival of antagonistic classes has been for the most extreme communist leaders what fear of racial pollution was for Hitler. There, also, material explanations fail to address the extent of the killings, gruesome tortures, fantastic trails, and attempts to wipe out whole categories of people that occurred in Stalin’s Soviet Union, Mao’s China, and Pol Pot’s Cambodia. The revolutionary thinkers who formed and led communist regimes were not just ordinary intellectuals. They had to be fanatics in the true sense of that word. They were so certain of their ideas that no evidence to the contrary could change their minds. Those who came to doubt the rightness of their ways were eliminated, or never achieved power. The element of religious certitude found in prophetic movements was as important as their Marxist science in sustaining the notion that their vision of socialism could be made to work. This justified the ruthless dehumanization of their enemies, who could be suppressed because they were ‘objectively’ and ‘historically’ wrong. Furthermore, if events did not work out as they were supposed to, then that was because class enemies, foreign spies and saboteurs, or worst of all, internal traitors were wrecking the plan. Under no circumstances could it be admitted that the vision itself might be unworkable, because that meant capitulation to the forces of reaction. The logic of the situation in times of crisis then demanded that these ‘bad elements’ (as they were called in Maoist China) be killed, deported, or relegated to a permanently inferior status. That is very close to saying that the community of God, or the racially pure volksgemeinschaft could only be guaranteed if the corrupting elements within it were eliminated (Courtois et al. 1999).”
  53. Jump up to:a b Mann 2005, pp. 318, 321: “All accounts of 20th-century mass murder include the Communist regimes. Some call their deeds genocide, though I shall not. I discuss the three that caused the most terrible human losses: Stalin’s USSR, Mao’s China, and Pol Pot’s Cambodia. These saw themselves as belonging to a single socialist family, and all referred to a Marxist tradition of development theory. They murderously cleansed in similar ways, though to different degrees. Later regimes consciously adapted their practices to the perceived successes and failures of earlier ones. The Khmer Rouge used China and the Soviet Union (and Vietnam and North Korea) as reference societies, while China used the Soviet Union. All addressed the same basic problem – how to apply a revolutionary vision of a future industrial society to a present agrarian one. These two dimensions, of time and agrarian backwardness, help account for many of the differences. … Ordinary party members were also ideologically driven, believing that in order to create a new socialist society, they must lead in socialist zeal. Killings were often popular, the rank-and-file as keen to exceed killing quotas as production quotas. The pervasive role of the party inside the state also meant that authority structures were not fully institutionalized but factionalized, even chaotic, as revisionists studying the Soviet Union have argued. Both centralized control and mass party factionalism were involved in the killings.”
  54. ^ Tismăneanu 2012, p. 14: “However, a nuance emphasized by Snyder offers a caveat to the comparison between these two extremisms. In fact, Stalinism did not transform mass murder into political history, as happened in Nazi Germany. For Stalin, ‘mass murder could never be anything more than a successful defense of socialism, or an element in a story of progress toward socialism.’ But, to take Snyder’s point further, Communism, like Fascism, undoubtedly founded its alternative, illiberal modernity upon extermination. The Communist project, in such countries as the USSR, China, Cuba, Romania, or Albania, was based precisely on the conviction that certain social groups were irretrievably alien and deservedly murdered.”
  55. ^ Bellamy 2012, p. 950: “But it is not simply the number of victims that distinguishes communist from non-communist mass killing in the Cold War—though that in itself is important to acknowledge. The most important difference for our purposes lies in the fact that amongst the perpetrators and their supporters there was very little recognition that the deliberate extermination of large numbers of civilians might be morally problematic, let alone prohibited. Where there was criticism of this litany of mass murder, it almost always came from outside the communist world. The principal reason for the failure of civilian immunity to moderate the behavior of communist governments during the Cold War was the persistence and spread of communism’s ideology of selective extermination, and its general acceptance within the communist world as a legitimator of mass killing. As I argued earlier, this ‘anti-civilian ideology’ identifies whole groups as being outside the protection of noncombatant immunity and therefore liable for legitimate extermination. The basic communist variant of this ideology was first developed and applied by Stalin and held that certain socioeconomic or national groups or political attitudes were anti-communist and that group members were ‘enemies of the people’ who could be legitimately destroyed. Although each of the communist regimes that massacred large numbers of civilians during the Cold War developed their own distinctive account of selective extermination, they all shared the basic idea that their targets—identified as whole groups—had by their identity, actions, or thoughts, placed themselves outside legal or moral protection.85 Thus, in contrast to most Western or anti-communist perpetrators of mass atrocities during the Cold War, communist perpetrators tended to argue that their victims were ‘criminals’ or ‘enemies of the people’ and therefore beyond the protection of civilian immunity.”
  56. ^ Katz 2013, p. 267: “Mass Death under Communist Rule and the Limits of ‘Otherness’ Steven T. Katz Boston University Mass death is not a new reality. Over the centuries this tragic phenomenon has manifest itself in many times and places. An integral feature of this history of large-scale violence is what I call, ‘otherness.’ That is, the victimizer stigmatizes and stereotypes the victim in various ways in order to legitimate the violence that is then unleashed. What is worthy of note is that this distancing process takes many forms. The historical record reveals cases where the ‘Other’ is created on the grounds of class, sex, color, race, religion, ethnicity, and nationality. So, for example, the majority of Stalin’s victims were identified as ‘class enemies.’ The most notorious example of such class war was directed at the Kulaks, though his entire massive campaign against the peasantry as represented by his forced drive to collectivize agriculture, was based on the notion of class (and his desire for national modernization). Likewise, the extraordinary event that was Kampuchea was defined by the application of a radical communist ideology in which class was everything. Nationalism — connected usually to other factors such as religion, ethnicity, race, or color — has also played its part in justifying oppression and death — as a decisive ingredient in Stalin’s exile of the minority nationalities during World War II and in his assault on the Ukraine in the early 1930s.”
  57. ^ Shaw 2015a, p. 115: “In these contexts, democratic impulses were snuffed out, and foundations were made for the centralization of power in the hands of Stalin, who in turn proclaimed the new nationalist doctrine of ‘socialism in one country’. Thereafter, nationalist ideas were at the heart of many mass killings by Communist states, both in genocide and in war. As Stalinist parties seized power in Asia and the Balkans after 1945, they each proclaimed their own national ideology. Each ‘great leader’ claimed to represent his fatherland, and many were prepared to kill extensively in the leader’s name. After this, nationalist militarism became the model for revolutionary movements across the Third World. Whatever other ideological elements and alliances the insurgent forces claimed, their killing was invariably in the name of national liberation. The ‘killing fields’ of Cambodia (episode VII) represented the nadir of this kind of nationalist Communism. In the former Soviet and Yugoslav areas after 1989, many former Communist elites reinvented themselves as ethnic nationalists. In some cases, they launched genocidal wars in the name of their new creed, to renew the foundations of their power. Nationalism made democratization a sick joke in war zones – the incentive to manufacture ethnically homogenous electorates became one of the driving forces of expulsion and slaughter (episode VIII).”
  58. ^ Rosefielde 2010, p. xvi: “The story that emerges from the exercise is edifying. It reveals that the conditions for the Red Holocaust were rooted in Stalin’s, Kim’s, Mao’s, Ho’s and Pol Pot’s siege-mobilized terror-command economic systems, not in Marx’s utopian vision or other pragmatic communist transition mechanisms. Terror-command was chosen among other reasons because of legitimate fears about the long-term viability of terror-free command, and the ideological risks of market communism. The internal contradictions of communism confronted leaders with a predicament that could only have been efficiently resolved by acknowledging communism’s inferiority and changing course. Denial offered two unhappy options: one bloody, the other dreary, and history records that more often than not, communist rulers chose the worst option. Tens of millions were killed in vain; a testament to the triumph of ruthless hope over dispassionate reason that proved more durable than Hitler’s and Hirohito’s racism. These findings are likely to withstand the test of time, but are only a beginning, opening up a vast new field for scientific inquiry as scholars gradually gain access to archives in North Korea, China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.”
  59. ^ Krain 1997, p. 334: “In addition, many studies have documented the effects of wars and civil wars on general preconditions for genocides and politicides. For example, Melson (1992) argues that revolutions create the conditions that allow genocidal movements and permit their leaders to come to power in the first place and impose their radical ideology, thereby legitimizing mass murder in the eyes of the populace by making it state sponsored. Following the work done by Laswell (1962) on the ‘garrison state,’ Gurr (1988) documents the establishment and expansion of the secret police and other institutions of the ‘coercive state’ as a direct result of wars and civil wars. Eisenstadt (1978) argues that hostile international pressures lead to greater isolation of the elites, which in turn leads to an increased probability that these elites will use repression. Some preliminary quantitative work has verified this hypothesis.”
  60. ^ Jones 2010, p. 126: “This civil war, one of the most destructive of the twentieth century, lasted until 1921 and claimed an estimated nine million lives on all sides. Its ‘influence . . . on the whole course of subsequent history, and on Stalinism, cannot possibly be overestimated. It was in the civil war that Stalin and men like Stalin emerged as leaders, while others became accustomed to harshness, cruelty, terror.’ Red forces imposed “War Communism,’ an economic policy that repealed peasants’ land seizures, forcibly stripped the countryside of grain to feed city dwellers, and suppressed private commerce. All who opposed these policies were ‘enemies of the people.’ ‘This is the hour of truth,’ Lenin wrote in a letter to a comrade in mid-1918. ‘It is of supreme importance that we encourage and make use of the energy of mass terror directed against the counterrevolutionaries.’ The Cheka, the first incarnation of the Soviet secret police (later the NKVD and finally the KGB), responded with gusto. Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders may have viewed mass terror as a short-term measure but its widespread use belies claims that it was Stalin’s invention.”
  61. ^ Montagnes & Wolton 2019, p. 27: “Mass purges further seem to have occurred during, arguably, the most personalist phase, to borrow Geddes’s (2003) terminology, of the communist regimes in the USSR and China. We see two possible complementary reasons for this. According to Geddes (2003), personalist leaders control appointments, potentially raising the congruence of new agents, and the security apparatus, potentially reducing the cost of carrying out the purge. Purges may then have almost disappeared in China and the USSR following the deaths of Stalin and Mao because of the subsequent return to a form of collective leadership to avoid a repeat of past excesses (Levytsky, 1972; Teiwes, 2017). Obviously, much more needs to be learned about why autocrats decide to start a mass purge. However, our framework can be seen as a possible starting point for a more general theory of coercive instruments in autocracy.”
  62. ^ Žižek 2006: “This ‘cosmic perspective’ is for Mao not just an irrelevant philosophical caveat; it has precise ethico-political consequences. When Mao high-handedly dismisses the threat of the atomic bomb, he is not down-playing the scope of the danger — he is fully aware that nuclear war may led to the extinction of humanity as such, so, to justify his defiance, he has to adopt the ‘cosmic perspective’ from which the end of life on Earth ‘would hardly mean anything to the universe as a whole’:The United States cannot annihilate the Chinese nation with its small stack of atom bombs. Even if the U.S. atom bombs were so powerful that, when dropped on China, they would make a hole right through the earth, or even blow it up, that would hardly mean anything to the universe as a whole, though it might be a major event for the solar system.This ‘cosmic perspective’ also grounds Mao’s dismissive attitude towards the human costs of economic and political endeavors. If one is to believe Mao’s latest biography, he caused the greatest famine in history by exporting food to Russia to buy nuclear and arms industries: 38 million people were starved and slave-driven to death in 1958-61. Mao knew exactly what was happening, saying: ‘half of China may well have to die.’ This is instrumental attitude at its most radical: killing as part of a ruthless attempt to realize goal, reducing people to disposable means – and what one should bear in mind is that the Nazi holocaust was NOT the same: the killing of the Jews not part of a rational strategy, but a self-goal, a meticulously planned ‘irrational’ excess (recall the deportation of the last Jews from Greek islands in 1944, just before the German retreat, or the massive use of trains for transporting Jews instead of war materials in 1944). This is why Heidegger is wrong when he reduces holocaust to the industrial production of corpses: it was NOT that, Stalinist Communism was that.”
  63. ^ Conquest 2007, p. xvi: “Exact numbers may never be known with complete certainty, but the total of deaths caused by the whole range of Soviet regime’s terrors can hardly be lower than some fifteen million.”
  64. ^ Yakovlev 2002, p. 234: “My own many years and experience in the rehabilitation of victims of political terror allow me to assert that the number of people in the USSR who were killed for political motives or who died in prisons and camps during the entire period of Soviet power totaled 20 to 25 million. And unquestionably one must add those who died of famine—more than 5.5 million during the civil war and more than 5 million during the 1930s.”
  65. ^ Wheatcroft 1999, pp. 315‒345: “During 1921–53, the number of sentences was (political convictions): sentences, 4,060,306; death penalties, 799,473; camps and prisons, 2,634,397; exile, 413,512; other, 215,942. In addition, during 1937‒52 there were 14,269,753 non-political sentences, among them 34,228 death penalties, 2,066,637 sentences for 0–1 year, 4,362,973 for 2–5 years, 1,611,293 for 6–10 years, and 286,795 for more than 10 years. Other sentences were non-custodial.”
  66. ^ Healey 2018, p. 1049: “New studies using declassified Gulag archives have provisionally established a consensus on mortality and ‘inhumanity.’ The tentative consensus says that once secret records of the Gulag administration in Moscow show a lower death toll than expected from memoir sources, generally between 1.5 and 1.7 million (out of 18 million who passed through) for the years from 1930 to 1953. Moreover, as Alexopoulos summarizes, we have found no ‘plan of destruction’ of prisoners (7), no statement of official intent to kill them in these records. Instead, historians have found that prisoner releases significantly predominated over deaths in the Gulag, with Alexopoulos’s own earlier work on amnesty a leading statement of this view. Yet her encounter with the Gulag medical-sanitary service’s Moscow archive ‘surprised’ Alexopoulos (1), and she now attempts to challenge the emergent scholarly consensus, with uneven success.”
  67. ^ Snyder 2011: “All in all, the Germans deliberately killed about 11 million noncombatants, a figure that rises to more than 12 million if foreseeable deaths from deportation, hunger, and sentences in concentration camps are included. For the Soviets during the Stalin period, the analogous figures are approximately six million and nine million.”
  68. ^ Montefiore 2005, p. 649: “Perhaps 20 million had been killed; 28 million deported, of whom 18 million had slaved in the Gulags.”
  69. ^ Volkogonov 1999, p. 139: “Between 1929 and 1953 the state created by Lenin and set in motion by Stalin deprived 21.5 million Soviet citizens of their lives.”
  70. ^ Gellately 2007, p. 584: “More recent estimations of the Soviet-on-Soviet killing have been more ‘modest’ and range between ten and twenty million.”
  71. ^ Brent 2008: “Estimations on the number of Stalin’s victims over his twenty-five year reign, from 1928 to 1953, vary widely, but 20 million is now considered the minimum.”
  72. ^ Rosefielde 2010, p. 17: “We now know as well beyond a reasonable doubt that there were more than 13 million Red Holocaust victims 1929–53, and this figure could rise above 20 million.”
  73. ^ Kleveman 2003: In one estimate, based on a report by Lavrenti Beria to Stalin, 150,000 of 478,479 deported Ingush and Chechen people (or 31.3 percent) died within the first four years of the resettlement.; Naimark 2001: Another scholar puts the number of deaths at 22.7 percent: Extrapolating from NKVD records, 113,000 Ingush and Chechens died (3,000 before deportation, 10,000 during deportation, and 100,000 after resettlement) in the first three years of the resettlement out of 496,460 total deportees.; Mawdsley 2003: A third source says a quarter of the 650,000 deported Chechens, Ingush, Karachais and Kalmyks died within four years of resettlement.; Fischer & Leggett 2006: However, estimates of the number of deportees sometimes varies widely. Two scholars estimated the number of Chechen and Ingush deportees at 700,000, which would halve the percentage estimates of deaths.
  74. ^ BBC 2008b: “Латвія стала 19-ю країною світу, яка визнала Голодомор ґеноцидом українського народу. Литва й Естонія ухвалили такі декларації раніше.” (translation: ‘Latvia became the 19th country in the world that recognized the Holodomor as the genocide of the Ukrainian people. Lithuania and Estonia have adopted such declarations earlier.’); Korrespondent 2008a: “Латвия присоеденилась к еще 15 странам, уже признавшим Голодомор в Украине геноцидом украинского народа. Декларация подготовлена в ответ на призыв Украины к международному сообществу признать и осудить Голодомор – голод на Украине 1930-х годов прошлого века. Как сообщалось, в феврале Мексика и Парагвай признали Голодомор 1932-1933 годов актом геноцида украинского народа.” (translation: ‘Latvia has joined 15 more countries that have already recognized the Holodomor in Ukraine as the genocide of the Ukrainian people. The declaration was prepared in response to Ukraine’s appeal to the international community to recognize and condemn the Holodomor — the famine in Ukraine of the 1930s of the last century. As reported, in February, Mexico and Paraguay recognized the Holodomor of 1932–1933 as an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people.’); Korrespondent 2008b: “Сусідні з Латвією Литва та Естонія визнали Голодомор в Україні геноцидом проти українського народу ще на початку 1990-х років. Загалом, Голодомор 1932-33 рр. геноцидом українців визнали понад 10 держав світу. Серед них США, Канада, Естонія, Аргентина, Австралія, Італія, Угорщина, Литва, Грузія, Польща, Еквадор і відтепер Латвія.” (translation: ‘Neighboring Latvia Lithuania and Estonia recognized the Holodomor in Ukraine as a genocide against the Ukrainian people in the early 1990s. In general, the Holodomor of 1932-33 has been identified by more than 10 states of the world as a genocide of Ukrainians. Among them are the USA, Canada, Estonia, Argentina, Australia, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania, Georgia, Poland, Ecuador and now Latvia.’).”
  75. Jump up to:a b Ellman 2002, pp. 1151–1172: “The best estimate that can currently be made of the number of repression deaths in 1937–38 is the range 950,000–1.2 million, i.e., about a million. This estimate should be used by historians, teachers, and journalists concerned with twentieth century Russian—and world—history.”
  76. ^ Fenby 2008, p. 351: “Mao’s responsibility for the extinction of anywhere from 40 to 70 million lives brands him as a mass killer greater than Hitler or Stalin, his indifference to the suffering and the loss of humans breathtaking.”
  77. ^ Su 2003, pp. 25–26: “In this study I have documented the patterns of mass killings in three Chinese provinces in the demobilization period of the Cultural Revolution. I also have also sought explanations for this historical tragedy by examining the role of the state. I have presented the findings from a few different angles. Now it is time to take a look at these findings together to formulate my central argument: The mass killings were rooted in the paradox of state sponsorship and state failure. … Mass killings occurred in the three provinces; in two provinces they were a widespread phenomenon. That this finding is from a published source sanctioned by the Chinese government unequivocally supports similar claims made by previous case studies. By examining the mass killings across more than 180 counties, with information from the previous case studies, I am able to uncover the following patterns. First, the mass killings varied greatly across three provinces, while within one province, there appears to be a great degree of uniformity. This pattern indicates that the occurrence of mass killings was more germane to province-specific political conditions rather than national politics as a whole. I tentatively attribute the provincial difference to the different patterns of mass factional alignment vis-à-vis the governmental authorities in the province. In Hubei, the Rebel Faction, having had prevailed in the previous conflict, was incorporated into the new government. In contrast, in Guangxi and Guangdong, the Rebel Factions continued to be the outsider, and the two provinces were more prone to use violence as a weapon against the Rebel Factions. An alternative explanation for the difference is that Hubei was geographically, and by inference, politically closer to Beijing, hence the province tended to have more restraint against violence. Second, the mass killings concentrate in the months after most counties established revolutionary committees, but in the time when the provincial capitals were still entangled in mass factionalism. The peaks of mass killings coincided with two announcements from the party center in July 1968 banning factional armed battles and disbanding mass organizations. The finding that historical timing was crucial factor helps us understand the nature and source of mass killings. The fact that most of them occurred after the new governments were put in place indicates that mass killings were the result of the repression by the local state rather than the result of conflicts between independent mass groups. The fact that they coincided with the crackdown of the oppositional mass organizations in the provincial capital indicates that the provincial authorities promoted the rhetoric of violence, although extreme violence in local communes and villages may not be what they intended. Third, mass killings were primarily a rural phenomenon. In other words, they occurred not in provincial capitals or county seats, but in communes and villages. This is in stark contrast to earlier mass movements of the Cultural Revolution such as campaigns against intellectuals and government officials and the factional street battles which mostly occurred in urban settings. The imagery of top-down diffusion does not apply to the mass killings. This suggests that the class struggle rhetoric disseminated from urban centers found an expression in extreme violence in rural townships and villages, possibly due to the failure of the state to hold the action of the lowest bureaucrats accountable. This explanation is supported by another piece of evidence—the poorer and remoter counties were more likely to have mass killings. Fourth, the perpetrators were the local leaders and their mass followers (e.g., militia members). The more party members in the local community, the more likely there were mass killings, likely because the local government in these communities enjoyed a stronger organizational base to mobilize the extreme violence. Fifth, other things being equal (i.e., controlling for distance, county revenue, and party membership) counties with a significant presence of ethnic minority were not more likely to have mass killings. Similarly, population density, prior armed battle conflict, and the compositions of the county leadership have no association to the likelihood of mass killings. These findings to some extent eliminate alternative explanations to the argument fashioned here that stresses the role of the state.”
  78. ^ Su 2011, pp. 98–100: “The so-called class enemy as a category of the rural population had been in place for about two decades after 1949, but not until the Cultural Revolution did it become a victim group for eliminationist killing. This development cannot be explained by the communist doctrine of a classless society because the doctrine as previously practiced in China, for the most part, was not to create this society by physical elimination. Neither can it be explained by the notion that previously propertied classes posed an objective threat, hence that their elimination was imperative. This review of the origin of class enemy demonstrates that its creation, maintenance, and treatment all served the politics of the time. Mass-killing scholars who draw on political violence in communist societies for comparison, however, often take a realist view of the concept of class enemy (or ‘people’s enemy’ in the case of the Soviet Union). That is, they write as though the opposition to the new communist system was real, with class enemy identifying a broad category of individuals who represent plausible or incipient opposition or resistance to the state. … After the Land Reform movement, China was transformed into a classless society, if defined only in terms of property. From this classless society, the state created an artificial divide between ‘the people’ and the ‘class enemy.’ The toothless enemy class was never designed to be eliminated, either by murder or other means. In the first place, the numbers of class enemies were inflated. Quotas were established and sanctions were applied to local leadership if localities did not have a certain percentage of landlords and rich peasants; the numbers were always greater than their initial landed status would warrant. To underscore the artificiality and arbitrariness of this designation, a few years after Mao’s death, class enemies were eliminated as a political class – not by murder but rather by declaration – once the new leadership decided that the categories and campaigns had become counterproductive. Therefore, the class divides were imposed and maintained by the state and perpetuated through state-sponsored mass campaigns. What purpose, then, did the existence of a constructed enemy class serve? The answer links this artificial class divide to two main political tasks: mobilizing mass compliance and resolving elite conflict. These linkages are the key to understanding why the system deepened the politically constructed divide in times of political crisis. Its elastic nature, then, is the key to understanding why the class categorization could take on a genocidal dimension under extraordinary circumstances.”
  79. ^ Etcheson 2005, p. 78: “Were the Cambodian people somehow Pol Pot’s ‘willing executioners,’ with the violence of the Khmer Rouge regime reflecting an underlying trait of the Cambodian people, historically unique to the time and place it occurred? Or did the violence of the Khmer Rouge regime emanate from some more broadly distributed ideological origin, therefore rendering it amenable to comparison? Perhaps the Khmer Rouge mass killing arose from the same tenets of communism that brought about the mass killing of Stalin’s Russia and Mao’s China but that was, by absolute numbers, much less evil. Or perhaps the killing in Cambodia can be understood as a response to the perceived threat from Vietnam, as the Khmer Rouge themselves have argued at some length. These same themes and issues lay at the heart of the Historikerstreit, and they are also part and parcel of genocide studies. In the scholarly literature on the Khmer Rouge regime of Democratic Kampuchea, there have been two principal schools of thought regarding the nature of the violence that took so many lives in such a short period of time. One school of thought holds that the primary locus of the violence was local and that it was largely the result of the spontaneous excesses of a vengeful, undisciplined peasant army. A prominent proponent of this school of thought is Michael Vickery. A second school of thought holds that the locus of the violence was centralized and that it was largely the result of a carefully planned and centrally controlled security apparatus. Several observers have proposed this explanation of the violence in the Democratic Kampuchea regime, including, for example, the recently retired U.S. ambassador to Cambodia, Kenneth Quinn. It can be argued, however, that until recently there was an inadequate amount of data to make an unambiguous determination of the question. A wide range of new evidence uncovered by the Documentation Center of Cambodia over the course of the last ten years has done much to resolve this controversy. In particular, data on the frequency, distribution, and origin of mass graves, combined with data gleaned from newly discovered Khmer Rouge internal security documents, have given us new insight into the question of the economy of violence within Democratic Kampuchea. The data lead inexorably to the conclusion that most of the violence was carried out pursuant to orders from the highest political authorities of the Communist Party of Kampuchea. In this chapter, I briefly review some of the new evidence that so strongly suggests this new and well-documented conclusion.”
  80. ^ Harff & Gurr 1988, p. 369: “Revolutionary mass murder: the most common type of politicide (following repressive politicide), with ten examples in our data set. In all these instances new regimes have come to power committed to bringing about fundamental social, economic, and political change. Their enemies usually are defined by variants of Marxist-Leninist ideology: initially their victims include the officials and most prominent supporters of the old regime and landowners and wealthy peasants. Later they may include-as they did in Kampuchea and in China during the Cultural Revolution-cadres who lack revolutionary zeal. In Laos and Ethiopia they have included ordinary peasants in regions which actively or passively resisted revolutionary policies. Most Marxist-Leninist regimes which came to power through protracted armed struggle in the postwar period perpetrated one or more politicides, though of vastly different magnitudes. The worst offender was the Pol Pot regime in Kampuchea; the second worst, the Chinese Communist regime.”
  81. ^ Jambrek 2008, p. 156: “Most of the mass killings were carried out from May to July 1945; among the victims were mostly the ‘returned’ (or ‘home-captured’) Home guards and prisoners from other Yugoslav provinces. In the following months, up to January 1946 when the Constitution of the Federative People’s Republic of Yugoslavia was passed and OZNA had to hand the camps over to the organs of the Ministry of the Interior, those killings were followed by mass killing of Germans, Italians and Slovenes suspected of collaborationism and anti-communism. Individual secret killings were carried out at later dates as well. The decision to ‘annihilate’ opponents must had been adopted in the closest circles of Yugoslav state leadership, and the order was certainly issued by the Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army Josip Broz — Tito, although it is not known when or in what form.”
  82. ^ Vu 2010a, p. 103: “Clearly Vietnamese socialism followed a moderate path relative to China. … Yet the Vietnamese ‘land reform’ campaign … testified that Vietnamese communists could be as radical and murderous as their comrades elsewhere. In May 1953, on the eve of the campaign, the VWP Politburo chaired by Ho authorized the execution of landlords by a ratio of one person for every thousand people, or 0.1 percent of the population.5 … 5. ‘Chi thi cua Bo Chinh Tri’ (Politburo’s Decree), May 4, 1953 (Dang Cong San Viet Nam, hereafter DCSVN, 2001, 14: 201). Based on other sources, Edwin Moise (2001, 7-9) accepts an estimate close to 15,000 executions. This was about 0.1 percent of the total population of 13.5 million in North Vietnam in 1955.”
  83. ^ Valentino 2005, p. 223: “The pattern of Soviet military operations strongly suggests that population relocation was a significant part of Soviet counterinsurgency strategy in Afghanistan. Although direct evidence of Soviet intentions is limited, most analysts and observers of the war have concluded that the Soviets adopted an intentional policy of attacking villages in areas of high guerrilla activity in the effort to force the population into flight. Free-fire zones were established in depopulated areas, permitting Soviet troops to shoot anything that moved. In addition to killing tens of thousands in attacks on villages, this policy eventually produced one of the most massive refugee movements in modern history. Approximately 5 million people out of a total prewar population of between 15.5 and 17 million had fled the country by the early 1990s, the great majority across the border to Pakistan. Two million more were displaced within Afghanistan. Many refugees died during the difficult journey over mountain passes to Pakistan.”
  84. ^ Courtois 1999, p. 9: “As for the great famine in Ukraine in 1932-33, which resulted from the rural population’s resistance to forced collectivization, 6 million died in a period of several months. Here, the genocide of a ‘class’ may well be tantamount to the genocide of a ‘race’ — the deliberate starvation of a child of a Ukrainian kulak as a result of the famine causes by Stalin’s regime ‘is equal to’ the starvation of a Jewish child in the Warsaw ghetto as a result of the famine caused by the Nazi regime. Such arguments in no way detract from the unique nature of Auschwitz — the mobilization of leading-edge technological resources and their use in an ‘industrial process’ involving the construction of an ‘extermination factory,’ the use of gas, and cremation. However, this argument highlights one particular feature of many Communist regimes — their systematic use of famine as a weapon. The regime aimed to control the total available food supply and, with immense ingenuity, to distribute food purely on the basis of ‘merits’ and ‘demerits’ earned by individuals. This policy was a recipe for creating famine on a massive scale. Remember that in the period after 1918, only Communist countries experienced such famines, which led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands, and in some cases millions, of people. And again in the 1980s, two African countries that claimed to be Marxist-Leninist, Ethiopia and Mozambique, were the only such countries to suffer these deadly famines.”
  85. ^ Shaw 2015b, Structural contexts and unintended consequences: “Many famines, for example, are originally the product of natural conditions (e.g. in nineteenth-century colonial India) or of anti-peasant policies not originally intended to cause mass death (Stalin’s ‘terror-famine’ and Mao’s ‘Great Leap Forward’). However, if regimes, whether colonial or Stalinist, fail to take action to alleviate or end starvation, then that outcome may come to be, in part, intended. The understanding of this issue in the laws of war is enlightening: ‘If the destruction [of civilian populations] is avoidable … through better weapon selection, tactics, etc., then the commander could still be held liable under Article 2 of the 1907 Hague Conventions,’ even if he did not intend to kill civilians. If leaders, in the knowledge of hunger, actively pursue policies that exacerbate it, as Stalin and Mao did by selling grain overseas and using violence to prevent peasants from accessing it, then their intention is clear.”
  86. ^ The resolution stated: “In the early 1990s, our country took important steps towards establishing the truth in the Katyn tragedy. It was recognized that the mass extermination of Polish citizens on the territory of the USSR during World War II was an act of arbitrariness by the totalitarian state, which also repressed hundreds of thousands of Soviet people for their political and religious beliefs, on social and other grounds. The published materials, kept in secret archives for many years, not only reveal the scale of this terrible tragedy, but also testify that the Katyn crime was committed on the direct orders of Stalin and other Soviet leaders.”
  87. ^ Bevins 2020, p. 240:”… we do not live in a world directly constructed by Stalin’s purges or mass starvation under Pol Pot. Those states are gone. Even Mao’s Great Leap Forward was quickly abandoned and rejected by the Chinese Communist Party, though the party is still very much around. We do, however, live in a world built partly by US-backed Cold War violence … Washington’s anticommunist crusade, with Indonesia as the apex of its murderous violence against civilians, deeply shaped the world we live in now …”


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  2. ^ Weiss-Wendt 2008, p. 42.
  3. ^ Mann 2005, p. 17.
  4. ^ Sangar 2007, p. 1, paragraph 3.
  5. ^ Karlsson & Schoenhals 2008, p. 104.
  6. ^ Semelin 2009, p. 344.
  7. ^ Semelin 2009, p. 318.
  8. ^ Harff 2017, p. 112.
  9. ^ Harff 2017, pp. 112, 116.
  10. ^ Harff 2017, p. 116.
  11. ^ Fein 1993a, p. 75.
  12. ^ Rummel 1993.
  13. ^ Jones 2010, p. 137.
  14. ^ van Schaack 1997, p. 2267.
  15. ^ Staub 2000, p. 368.
  16. ^ Wayman & Tago 2010, pp. 3–4.
  17. Jump up to:a b US Congress 1993, p. 15 at §905a1.
  18. ^ Rauch 2003.
  19. ^ Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation 2010.
  20. ^ Möller 1999.
  21. ^ Rousso & Goslan 2004, p. 157.
  22. ^ Shafir 2016, pp. 64, 74.
  23. ^ Staub 1989, p. 8.
  24. Jump up to:a b Esteban, Morelli & Rohner 2010, p. 6.
  25. ^ Valentino, Huth & Bach-Lindsay 2004, p. 387.
  26. ^ Valentino 2005, p. 91.
  27. ^ Ott 2011, p. 55.
  28. ^ Harff & Gurr 1988, p. 360.
  29. ^ Midlarsky 2005, p. 321.
  30. ^ Wheatcroft 1996, p. 1320.
  31. ^ Karlsson & Schoenhals 2008, p. 8.
  32. Jump up to:a b c Harff 2017.
  33. Jump up to:a b c Dallin 2000.
  34. ^ Getty 1985, p. 5.
  35. ^ Ellman 2002.
  36. ^ Ellman 2002, p. 1151.
  37. ^ Wheatcroft 1999, p. 341: “For decades, many historians counted Stalin’ s victims in ‘tens of millions’, which was a figure supported by Solzhenitsyn. Since the collapse of the USSR, the lower estimates of the scale of the camps have been vindicated. The arguments about excess mortality are far more complex than normally believed. R. Conquest, The Great Terror: A Re-assessment (London, 1992) does not really get to grips with the new data and continues to present an exaggerated picture of the repression. The view of the ‘revisionists’ has been largely substantiated (J. Arch Getty & R. T. Manning (eds), Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives (Cambridge, 1993)). The popular press, even TLS and The Independent, have contained erroneous journalistic articles that should not be cited in respectable academic articles.”
  38. ^ Brzezinski 1993, p. 16.
  39. ^ Rummel 1994, p. 15, Table 1.6.
  40. Jump up to:a b Rummel 2005a.
  41. Jump up to:a b c Rummel 2005b.
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  50. ^ ChicagoTribune 2017.
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  53. ^ Harff 2017, pp. 113–114.
  54. ^ Weiner 2002, p. 450.
  55. ^ Paczkowski 2001, p. 34.
  56. ^ Kuromiya 2001, p. 195.
  57. Jump up to:a b Harff 1996.
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  59. Jump up to:a b c Ghodsee 2014.
  60. Jump up to:a b Neumayer 2018.
  61. Jump up to:a b c d e Engel-Di Mauro 2021.
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  63. Jump up to:a b c d e Ghodsee & Sehon 2018.
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An Editorial!

Steve Erdmann’s Dissenter/Disinter Group Editorial Comments

“Warning” to those who join the Dissenter/Disinter Group: Facebook’s new algorithm automatically ‘subtracts’ members rather than add them correctly! It was not like this a few months ago. This has been reported to Facebook numerous times, without result! An accounting has been started today of all members added to the Dissenter/Disinter Group to document their miscreant functioning. I ask ‘you’ computer programming and mathematician experts out there: what kind of accounting is Facebook using and how would you address this problem? Please help me investigate this and make complaints. A Facebook Help Desk comment on Google says they are “scrubbing-out” non-active Group members: Who and why are they making those indiscriminate decisions (they don’t do that with Friends on Timelines): sounds more like censorship, that would actually be a private matter between Administrators and the members, and not done arbitrarily and against their will (why even try to get members if they’re going to be knifed in the back (or, solicit new members to a Group)?

SE – Once again, we try to explain (as we have done in the past several times) our general approach to news, the media, politics. Here is a reproduction of private comments in a reply to one of my critics:

“We like some of your ideas, facts, and thoughts, and we welcome them – if presented within reason and decor. This is what we don’t like and try to avoid: Stephen Erdmann: We promote very few human endeavors in an absolute sense, Russian or otherwise, as all fail and all fall within the scope of the loop of human evil and frailty. We look for those foes that all humankind seems to be battling from ‘any’ corner they are hunkered in.

“This Group is not a ‘platform’ for one single person’s private opinions or ‘sermons.’ It is a ‘forum’ whereby ‘all’ have an opportunity to add to the ongoing investigation. Hopefully, most will participate and not just become ‘observers.’ Likewise, this Group will not become monopolized by the thinking and propaganda of just one individual – this was not its purpose.

“We are not affiliated with the KKK or any other political faction said that many times, over and over, as well as has explained why we present all sides of news and media questions, without censorship, if possible. We are against the Military/Industrial/Corporate/Complex/Matrix (MICCM) and all its ‘isms,’ ‘cants,’ ‘crats,’ ‘cans,’ and  ‘doms.’ All it takes to see this and prove it, is to use your mouse or enter scroll and have a strong browser and investigate back to 2011. We refuse to become any one person’s private, personal pulpit (that is why you have your own Timeline). We allow most to speak their minds continually here — even to the point of opulently and often stuporous ferociousness — over and over — but apparently that is not good enough for a few. It takes a strong mind and will to live under the 1st Amendment and really abide by it.

“When I say ‘we,’ I usually mean ‘me’ – though I am speaking editorially on behalf of all those members who follow and agree with the Preamble religiously — they get the idea and message — and are giving me their full support.

“All the twisting, stretching, and manipulating of my stated words and intended feelings will not help these matters, and being completely uncompromising, unreasonable and deliberately uncouth certainly won’t help either.

“Please, read my text and postings in their full context and their entirety, if possible, to adjust to the real story and picture I present. Don’t settle for ‘half-baked’ interpretations or careless understanding.

“When any one person begins to use these spaces as solely his or her private podium to demonized (and shout down or otherwise badger) all other voices, he will be informed and given a mandate to cease and desist. This is a ‘forum’ Group and that connotes some fairness and inspection and equipoise of one’s behavior: we hope that each member will reflect on their behavior and not allow it to become effluvium.”

(This does not mean we will allow boring, tiring, inaccurate propaganda about the alleged Israel-cabal of so-called Zionism, which in many cases is far too short-sighted when it concerns the worldwide Military-Industrial-Corporate-Complex-Matrix (MICCM). Well documented pieces on ‘how’ Zionism is part and parcel of the “overall” MICCM, might be tolerated; but, singling out propaganda trying to prove Hitler was virtuous and the killing of the Jewish population as justified, will not be tolerated.

We do not automatically share anti-Semitic views and do not state everyone should or does. In fact, those that appear to be promoted from a Hate standpoint usually won’t coexist on this Group. This Group does not endorse, knowingly, anti-Semitic propaganda per se and any Hate Speech that is the basis for it.)

We are here to promote ‘news’ from all different angles and sources, it is not my or anyone else’s purpose to knowingly or even unknowingly ‘prejudge’ the news, unless it becomes so apparent it is false there is no other alternative. But getting to that point can be a rocky and wearisome struggle. We have no prejudice about exposing ‘multiple’ viewpoints, because we realize that reality is multi-sided, often multidimensional, complicated and not always easily discernible: so we present many sides of that struggle. If you read my editorial comments, you should see that I have no particular stake in the sordid political fights and feel such political ‘gamesmanship’ is illusory and almost impossible. Some people feel that such deception is beyond their party, club or faction. You may feel yours is Holy, as well. I doubt that sanctimoniousness. Only the strong-minded need to tread here. That closed-mindedness of “my viewpoint only” needs to be “taken down.”

It won’t help to distance yourself from exercising your 1st Amendment Rights or having a scientifically critical viewpoint of the way life really is. Being Cheshire Cats or Mad Hatters, neither, or the way humans use delusion to cover the crimes of fellow humans down through the centuries. They now call Hollywood La-La Land for a reason. We all want to be ‘happy,” or try to be, and relish the moments that can be described as such—who wouldn’t?— but the age-old conflicts that are weighing down on so many in society, like maimed soldiers with PTSD — can’t foolishly ignore the conflicts.

A lot of people don’t want to fall into the greedy hands and the vicious, heartbreaking, devastating grip of the Legal Cabal and lawyers who eagerly waiting your downfall and falter into the henchmen hands and courtroom manipulations of distorting reality and controlling your life in as much pain and anguish and loss as possible. You have to example the alternatives, but when confronted, especially with prior knowledge, it might be best to look to each other rather than the Powerbrokers and the Big Brothers. Unfortunately, many are just babes in the woods and don’t know yet what is about to befall them.

It’s all about the money and how the Legal Cabal can control the situation; children are used as hostages for ransom, the court room their playground to reconstruct reality: Orwell’s ‘1984’ further realized, and you will, like Winston, if they have their way, “come to love Big Brother.”

It’s all part of a political ‘game’ that they develop in the courtroom to recreate a ‘reality’ that is used against you (much like the political world in George Orwell’s ‘1984’), been saying that for some time now; and the bigger “gunslinger” and ‘stick-carrier’ more or less wins. Not much different then olden medieval jousts or Roman gladiator fights.

There is a big difference between a source that publishes outright invented news, and a source—or sources—that you just “don’t like,” or says things that are philosophically different than your views or opinions. Things said on the Left spectrum and the Right Spectrum may annoy us, but they have the Constitutional Right to speak and be heard by willing listeners (you can always turn a deaf ear to the opinion). Myself, I think both sides of the “aisle” are filled with evil intentions and hogwash, but that shouldn’t prevent me printing interesting ‘tidbits,’ unless I decide one day to go completely “off the grid.”

Political terms, names and meanings have evolved, changed, and transformed over the years as many other concepts that have also transmogrified. Some “liberal” concepts once seemed to uphold “freedom,” ‘free speech’ and protected ‘human rights’: now have turned into a ‘power-based’ ‘force’ to change society, even if by ‘radical’ or ‘militant’ means. Some blatantly attack those idealistic overtures the Founding Fathers alluded to (some hiding behind those precepts but being actually treacherous to them). Conservatives tried to parade themselves as preserving the principals that were expounded underlying the Founding Fathers up to and through the Bill of Rights, have much, in the same way, become the lair of the wealthy and ultra-rich which want to control the masses, preserve their power and wealth, and hide behind a disguise of being the protectors of the Rights of Mankind, when they are only another power-based ‘force’ for control and greed using the slavery to the masses. They have far surpassed the British overlords the colonialists fought. All of these have become Monsters.

(I know from experience that security guards are nothing but Whipping Boys, a ‘buffer’ between the Security Guard company, the police and the Landowner (they have three (3) bosses). They are the ‘Fall guys,’ if anything goes wrong, it is their job to take the heat, to not make the Landlords or the company to look bad (nor the police, who often treat them as low, second-class citizens and nothing more). They are given a whole list of phony ‘rules’ to make them robots to ‘slice the heat’ and put on a good ‘public face’ (often at low or very moderate wages), sometimes in very dangerous and life-threatening situations. It is Crony Capitalism at its worst; most guards will not admit this for fear of losing their jobs. They could really tell you some stories: but it would expose the ‘system.’ They are allowed to do what they have to do in order to ‘protect’ this ‘status quo and system.’ I am quite sure this goes beyond the Security Guard profession, and the same mentality exists in most businesses and professions, one way or the other.)

Yes, we have covered this phenomena every now and then since 2011. I’ve been through the Divorce Racket (and other rackets) over the years and have tried to speak out in various formats and scenarios; it all follows a common thread. It makes one wonder why we are fighting each other, rather than the ‘common enemy.’ That enemy is hard to see and I’ve done what I can to expose it and make it visible. These pages are open to fellow dissidents and ‘explorers’ and ‘exposers.’ You’re welcome to tell your stories here and add to the exposition. It is all part of a megalith monster I call the Military-Industrial-Corporate-Complex- Matrix (MICCM).

Those that have been through an unwanted divorce, and even a wanted one, to some degree, are aware of the trauma, nervous fatigue, and other psychological damage done—along with other life incidents—resulting in a form of PTSD. I would be the last one to tell someone how to live, as there are too many factors. Avoid elitist nay-sayers who are usually the cause of the problem that you are in, as they are usually narcissists. There is an ‘upside’ to these battles, and it is usually found within you somehow and can be reinforced by fellow victims, possibly.

Concerning a separate and special Right for Women Manifesto: Don’t know why it has to be signature by “women” as these are basic Human Rights for all mankind, male or female, which, unfortunately many women, in their symbiotic and parasitic alliance with the Legal Industry Cabal, causes them to tarnish and violate those basic Rights for both Men and Women. See how far these Rights go without falling into the trap (as they have already been) of being used or overtaken by the MICCM and other Legal Industry Masterminds which only serve their own Power, Profit and Prestige.

You are seeing the dark crevices of the Legal Cabal and its influence over humans. It is not a female/male thing, necessarily, but an allowance of human perversity personified by the workings of the Legal Industry. You are experiencing the gun-ho workings of the system on individuals, as many men have experienced, but the system forces on everyone for profit and power. It is as old as “slavery.”

“Outspoken” should pertain to those who are proven to be true heroes opposing physical and psychological dangers, as opposed to brats and punks, calling themselves adults, trashing, and destroying others for very vain and greedy purposes.

It is equally infuriating to be unnecessarily misquoted and misunderstood, when an opponent or debater is just flouting his ingrained and innate propaganda brainwashed into him from birth and is making no attempt to truly analyze and comprehend what you are telling them. Sometimes, their minds are so closed, they just ignore anything you say or do. Instead of approaching the arguments from “in your shoes,” they continue to be the little robots our society has invented and further spiel the usual venom and grade-school invectiveness in which they have ‘not’ tried to unlearn.

I am at a point in my life that I want to undo the evils that I forgot or refused to fight against in my life, and give others a choice to do the same, before it is too late, utilizing my 1st Amendment Rights and no longer turning a blind eye to the fates of the world. To teach others to ‘think’ and discover and use their mind, not to become simple sheep and blind slaves to those who control their reality: Take off their masks, those little deceiving priests!

People get stuck in very old ideologies, concepts and “isms” and refuse to move out of those ‘boxes.’ We always like to think that we are the ones that are wearing the ‘white hats,’ and are the ‘only’ ones that know how to wear them and, even, the only ones that know where to ‘buy’ them: when they are just grey, smudged, soiled and fraying old hats that have been passed around for generations through many, many secret hands.

“Some kind” of compromise and “understanding” is always needed when these debates appear and try to look at “root” problems and not bring up too many private situations; and even then, always be willing to compromise and see each other’s point-of-view. Other than that, as I have said many times previously, the terms “fascist, liberal, left, right” are thrown around too loosely and with no historical meaning, always being projected from each person’s “private boxes.”

We shouldn’t condemn ‘socialism’ any more than ‘conservatism’: both are aimless, meaningless terms that don’t reflect the hidden agendas they are used for: fascist control and imperial elitism, the real enemy. At least ‘socialism’ had a true and genuine use in history well before America came into being and the bastardization of political terms. Most “political sensations” are nothing but masks to hide our inner evils and to gang together and destroy each other rather than help each other. A lot of national patriotism is the same baby-gook. We tend to fall for false histories, rather than the real histories: take off your masks little priests! Stop living in a world of ancient slogans and worn-out propaganda created by deceptive brain controllers and illusory political ideals.

Putting your full faith behind any one political party or personage is like trying to find virtue in a whorehouse: there are no such animals. Tyrannical and fascistic thinking are par for the course in any arena of life: it is the way humanoids operate. Ideologies are things only on ‘paper’: the real world should circumnavigate those illusory dreams and get down to the true facts; take off your masks, little priests.

I am the real oddball: and I have been sick and tired of the masking and erroneous parading of the so-called “Political Parties” for some time; watching the circus of flying monkeys never changes, even when one monkey is somewhat likable and seems to be alien to all the rest, it never changes. Still, we forge ahead and root and rant like the Romans at the Coliseum.

‘Pure’ Capitalism has never existed, nothing politically and socially has ever existed as ‘pure.’ It is easy to write something on paper and claim it is pristine and infallible, but quite another to see it operate in cold, stark reality. So-called Americanism as Capitalism was corrupted right out of the gate (i.e., see past postings and comments elsewhere). It is nice to write idealistic doctrine, but quite another thing to see it corrupted, inadequate, and having no fail-safe due to the monstrosity of the human condition. I know all about the dictionary definition but applying it to real human accomplishments is a pipedream, daydream, fable that has never really existed in all practically. I ‘sure as hell’ see proof of that every day.

So-called “Capitalism” has had its problems too, part of which redesigning what is a theory on ‘paper’ and inventing it according to our own evil images, in the form of Crony Capitalism, Fascism, etc., etc. Like so much in life, there never has been “pure” Capitalism (like there have never been ‘pure’ heroes, or ‘pure’ religion, or ‘pure’ politics) because any such “ism” is run by nefarious and weak and inhumane “humans.” We have a classical bent to destroy, pervert and warp the things about us. It is just one of many fairy tales and play-toys that humans like to toss around and manipulate. Looking for this Holy Grail (like looking for the Golden Fleece) is ‘fun’ and can be used to bolster our usual Id Monsters (to take a metaphor from the movie FORBIDDEN PLANET), but it is in no way ‘reality.’

Capitalism is a cheap term used on paper only, a fairy-tale used by mega-Monsters to wave in the face of others and hide behind their own magnanimous quests to control and prosper—it is a concept on paper, an ideology, that does not truly represent what is actually being done in reality. Crude Crony Mercantilism as a guise to hide under a fictitious Capitalism might be another way to describe it, but no matter what term you use, it has never really existed, any more than “pure” Communism, “pure” Christianity, or other “pure” ‘isms’ which we use to mask the real person or the real institution as it should be nakedly exposed for what it “is” and for what is really being done in all their corrupt and inglorious actions. Being a Monster in any fashion, no matter, how wealthy or powerful, does not justify its existence, Might does not Make Right, as history blatantly shows, and the defense of such corruption and any extension or characteristic of it only shows the evil it is and continues to become. Thank you Dorian Gray.

Fighting each other instead of the common enemy: what a waste! Some members are correct when they say America has strong fascist elements, but America is “not” the ‘only’ place that this evil does and can take root. We are overemphasizing the wrong places, time and things! Why is it that vampires can’t see themselves in the mirror?

It would appear that “enslavement” — or slavery — is a universal, ingrained mechanism of human nature — a very cruel and often contradictory facet of humans: which we can see today as it is incorporated, mechanized and used in our Modern World; and it is aimed at and applied “to all humans” (except for those who try to rule and use enslavement).

The vile vindictiveness that the public is confronted with by many judges in the legal system goes beyond the words “fair and equal justice,” where the lives of citizens become mere playthings in the Westworld-type of robotic recreation on the floors of the courthouse. The worldwide multi-billion-dollar Legal Industry has permeated every fiber of our lives and directed our realities to the dictates of this despotic Puppet-Master. Ask any divorce man or domestic court victim, they will attest that a man has only five (5) foes when he enters the system: his lawyer, her lawyer, the judge, her innate sexuality and the status quo.

Many live in their little “isms” they were raised in from birth and do not look beyond or question who are the core sponsors (do you have a mirror; can you look in a mirror?). They do not realize how intricately they are crafted and brainwashed. They are robotized goose-stepping zombies, and there is no changing. The MICCM has trained them well.

No concept or leaf is left alone by the MICCM: it is part of evil human nature, even so-called national pride or patriotism. Look down through history and see how often humans have used these for evil and destructive purposes.

The human being is love-challenged and intelligence-challenged and has proved themselves as such down through history. The humans believe that owning tons of money makes them superior to their fellow creatures and creating millions of enslaved and blindly devoted employees makes themselves even better rulers and elitists. It has always been that way, on the micro and macro levels; they also abhor psychological mirrors and will even kill to the death if their empires are challenged, taking millions of fellow humans to their death. They “group” in mutual ‘clubs’ as a way to protect and even ‘mask’ their true natures.

Reality is shifting beneath your very own feet: what we have been taught about the righteousness of the Left or Right, Democrats or Republicans, this ‘wing,’ or that ‘wing,’ and we do not reflect the innate and basic social realities that are taking place before our own eyes. In my years since July 27, 1944, based on my experience and the questions I have asked, and my eyes have seen, we have been deluded over and over, from the day we were born. See my past comments. When confronting attorneys in private and putting hard questions to them, often in confidence, many have said there is no real freedom, anywhere, in any party — that they are in control and they hold allegiance to no one but their Bar Association cabal. Right out of Orwell’s 1984, but only worse and complete. This: because all “isms” are under the evil rule of the “Humans.” Humans that glorify every evil act they do as good and pure: it won’t change, and we won’t challenge it unless we see the real “enemy.” We will continue to form “clubs” (social and physical) — and expound those clubs — with power and greed and evil to be used as ‘clubs’ against each other — until this final Truth becomes too evident to deny.

These lawyers have opened a Pandora’s box. In my meetings with attorneys, they have shown hardened, darkened commitment to fascistic, despotic rule by corporate giants and big business, in stark, no-uncertain-terms—those terms are evident in the elements of its manufacture, such as Fire-At-Will laws and the disrespect of Human Rights.

An editor from the Wall Street Journal hit the nail right on the head: it is all about money. You pay enough so your lawyer can split a little off for the other lawyer and the judge, and after paying a small fortune, you get some of what you want. It is all a recreated reality done in the court room to the tune of the dollar bill. It is sad, that is true, but this is the way humans operate. Sometimes, however, one lawyer just does not want to look bad to the other lawyer, or the judge, and will sell you out just to keep in tight with the Club. The Legal Cabal is very much a part of the MICCM and controls our reality, it’s a “‘Big Club,’ and you are not in it!” (Carlin). I mentioned one time to an editor of the Wall Street Journal that perhaps a RICO suit should be brought against the Bar Association, and he asked how I would get the money to do that, and that, here again, it is a lawyer suing fellow lawyers; it ain’t going to happen. How can we get over this insurmountable wall? I’ll join in a Foundation to fight lawyers, if others will come with me. Let me know.

Note the synchronistic similarities between corporate “government,” popular “government,” social “government,” corporations as “people,” corporate “government” bribing and sleeping with “popular government,” all mixed in what I call the Military/Industrial/Corporate/Complex/Matrix (MICCM) “Government.”

We don’t understand “government.” We think it is a separate entity, alone and separate from us. Government is the darkest, evilest, macabre parts of our own psyche, and when those elements ‘group’ in the various forms and combinations (such as the MICCM) and materialize, we see the Monster ‘we’ have become. In the science-fiction thriller THE FORBIDDEN PLANET, it was called monsters of the ‘id.’ Until we see the true ‘enemy’—us—we will never, ever come to terms or defeat it.

Part of the problem is our throwing terms around for loose and lop-sided reasons without any real background or roots. These are enormously powerful people in the IMF and the United Nations, they are not a bunch of poor people trying to grub-up a livable wage for themselves. All this talk about entitlements: some of these ‘official’ people are born-and-breed aristocracy; they don’t know what it is like to live in the slums of India, Africa or the lowest of the low. It is a matter of the wealthy controlling the masses, and it is usually the wealthy that profit and the masses that suffer. They spend billions of media-propaganda-dollars guaranteeing that ‘that’ brainwashing is successful so the masses don’t attack them and “keep the lowly in their place.” That is the way it has always been! What is so sad, is when some of these executives, in a “little-bit-than-better-CEO-middle-class-salary,” actually have convinced themselves they are on the “winning side”—yes, they are actually safely on the side of the “elite”—that is ‘their’ team—and yet they don’t realize or are not aware that this is all self-delusion and they are only a few steps away—in actuality—from their very own destruction as outsiders also. It is all part of the programming by the MICCM.

It is exceedingly difficult and painful to suddenly realize that lullabies and fairy stories are things that are used to placate us and even control us, stories put down on paper, while they make us feel good and justified, are usually used by ourselves against ourselves as weapons hurting or obscuring ourselves. But we keep trudging on, programmed to believe that our ‘pipe dreams’ will come true and the scribbling we have made—or were programmed to make–mean something and will fly off the paper into reality. We can always pretend and hope.

(An aside: We have a ban on personal and unreasonable attacks on each other, or any other excuse one would try to come up with. If some are allowed to attack private family and friends, then any one is allowed to.

Attacks on one’s personal parents, children, or relatives are not allowed for whatever reason one can imagine. No posting or site or Group justifies hitting below the belt: if your arguments are good, they will not sink this low. That is not just espousing another opinion: instead, that is vicious attack.

We welcome all civil comments. We are running into, now and then, more and more, the questionable muck that is so often displayed across the Internet that ‘free speech’ is confused with slander, personal attacks and just being downright nasty and unkind for no other reason. We are happy to see you are not one of them.)

(I am not so sure the Reich disappeared but was transformed into the Fourth Reich, and the transformation and partnerships went further and further: the constant transmogrifications and transformations with partners sleeping in same bed. All the “isms” have blended into sub-Rosa deals: you are dealing with one huge Industrial/Military/Corporate/Complex/Matrix [MICCM]. The Party system is a mask, as are so many other masks. “Take off your mask, little priest,” says murderer Errol Childress to detective Rustin Spence in TRUE DETECTIVE, a mask we all wear and deny. ######################################## 
“He’s saying to take off the mask of his persona. They both know that the whole concept of being a ‘person’ is an illusion, and that everything just repeats over and over again, that good and evil will always exist, and yet Rust continues to fight the ‘good’ fight, because that’s simply his role. He is aware that it is futile, and yet continues this masquerade nonetheless. Errol is telling him to take off his mask and reveal his ‘true’ self; that the darkness is really within him. That this is all just a play, created by himself. A dream that he had within a locked room. And the only way to reveal this truth is in death.” ###################…

 ##### Lindsey Krumhar.) #########


It is sad if we still have to use the terms Liberal and Right as human qualifiers, as if it is a baseball sport, instead of just looking at the people as humans and just look at the facts: without all the banner- “my side versus your side” – waving. Slogans are masks to hide the evil, take off your masks little priests.

How in the world do the readers/members equate “non-coercion” with capitalism, when capitalistic countries have far more than a share of human torment and inhumanity? The fact is: there are no ‘pure’ systems of human relations that are devoid of evil and human mistreatment, be that capitalism or other. A lot of corruption happens in this system, and others, that can’t be gainsaid or explained away with fluffy, pie-in-the-sky make-believe. We need to take off our masks!

I think there is far more fear of the wealthy right-wing tyranny taking over America than the poor, underprivileged underclass swarming the Elite-ruling class. This fear of the “reds” coming to get our money was instilled in the 30-50’s to fight Communism by Intelligence operations in America. You are stuck in an era that was not all-together true. I don’t think presenting you with other evidence will do much good, if you are not willing to move out from behind that propaganda.

Having no great love for the current Parties, or any “ism,” does not mean I cannot pick out those bits and pieces and statements of logic that seem – seem – to point to good directions. It doesn’t mean I am giving “WHOLEHEARTED” endorsement of any Party or organization: just respecting some things that they occasionally say that are reasonable. History – true history – exists as bits and pieces in a large jigsaw puzzle; it is up to us to locate and assemble those pieces in honest efforts.

This should be an independent look at facts and issues, not “wings”: this is not a Kentucky-Fried restaurant. And this so-called “Right wing”—that must be a spicy part of the bird—or are they just Muppets dressed in white robes and gold halos floating around with their all-powerful wands and gimmicks?

This Group is not a hodgepodge of confused (nor a melting pot of all kinds of), aimless political quips and slander: do not come here to just “get something off your chest” – speak with purpose, clarity, and humanity and reason: childish tantrums belong in the alley. We need some new, innovative, investigation and reasoning: not the same old, worn-out, repetitive, ageless tantrums about Left versus Right. If we cannot change – we are lost.

Members are always welcome to state their detailed reasons for disagreement, but usually none are forthcoming. We encourage members to post their own analysis and other areas of news, no matter how disconcerting; but, apparently, most just rather be by-standing critics that have little to say of value.

If you want further specifics other than what is said here: you need to help locate those persons and names and pin down their actual substance and actions: nothing is being handed on a silver-platter, and we ask all to add further names and specific items; you are welcome to do that. Readers are welcome to speak up and demonstrate their findings, rather than vaguely complain. Sometimes, specific and detailed questions bring forth specific and detailed answers, bad questions, bad answers.

I don’t necessarily believe Putin or “anybody”: I try to present a lot of interesting comments and facts with not so much an unduly “prejudgment” so as to get opinions from all sides, rather than censor from some hidden or inner sanctum crap-pot of judgmental facts; and then I sometimes let the chips fall where they may.

(Please read and follow the Preamble, it is there for a reason. While we abhor censorship, but we do have rules: this is not a “let it all hang out” assembly with wild and ravishing comments. Use reason and purpose and humanity.

For all those out there who occasionally complain about the choice of content [and I am fighting the heavy-hand of the 1st Amendment and no censorship as well]: please submit – submit content that you would like to see, be active to this extent, and not just bystanders and curbside spectators.)

We welcome all the stories of tragedy in the lives of people who have encountered the Power Cabal. Most people are unaware of the day-to-day destruction of the family and other ‘taboo’ topics because the Powers-That-Be are not predicated upon its disclosure and they rather hide the cold, stark and naked facts: it would expose their true, evil intentions. Your stories can be told here.

Sadly, corporate enterprises, such as FACEBOOK, are trending to follow in the insanity of despotic corporatism, viewing their use of robots and censorship and Kangaroo Courts: It doesn’t make it right, known as Might Makes It Right syndrome. People have always fought back against this type of tyranny—and always will—unless they are Brain Washed or become corporate lackeys or henchmen. Here is one better: ultimately, your reality is controlled by lawyers and the Bar Associations in a Grand Cabal—what do you do, just give up the spirit and allow them total, complete control? As time goes on, and the technological tools advance and the wealth of the elites also grow, so do the means and tactics of the Power Elites, advancing in tow — step by step, to your demise.

That’s foolish! Obviously, Facebook doesn’t say: “you must agree to pointless censorship and reckless use of rules and unreasonable and dark, unanswerable human treatment and censorship”; they allege to act in a fair and reasonable manner and answerable to common decency and humanity. It is the least that American society expects. True, no one is reasonable and especially those in power, and only corporate lackeys and those of dark, like-minded mentally would agree with it anyway. Some of us have been mistaken, but it is not the first time, and, in our goodwill and generosity, we make false assumptions all the time—–it still does not make it right, but only to the like-minded.

We dance around some of the “core” problems and dress our dance in all kinds of (getting to be) “worn out” slogans, chants, and aimless threats, some very inaccurate, often, pretending to be on the “right side” of history — as the ground is shifting beneath our feet and the very reality of things is and has changed drastically in the matrix before our very eyes. More to come.

Good that you aren’t “complying,” that is not like you Ron Schmidt, because it seems to be Facebook’s “official” policy to allow this junk to happen often; religion, corporatism, and a whole host of tyrannical and power-derived ‘isms’ — even ‘capitalism’ — operate basically the same: fear, control, subjugation, etc. It is the way humans work and have been operating for eons. But Ron doesn’t really believe this “system” of humans can be evil and maybe, just maybe, we signed on to their Terms of Service (TOS) when we bought into this mass deception, and since we “bought in” to this grand Status Quo, we should have no complaint (Sovereign Immunity, “Don’t Question the King,” Boss, Dictator, President, etc., etc.), complaining won’t get you to the Top (investigating the system, the boss, etc.), only compliance will so sell your soul to the TOS, you hoe. Besides, it doesn’t really matter said an EEOC lawyer: they can make the rules, break the rules, apply them incoherent any way they like (and from the looks of the dirty politics going on nationally and internationally, that is obvious)! You just have to live with it!

Robert Glenn: True, men and affairs are like peas in the pod, on down the line. They carry that pistol and then are told not to use it. But here is the irony of those situations, unless they are gay: they are doing it with “females.” It takes two to have sex, unless you are into riding the pony by yourself. But sadly, we are also told these “females” are forever innocent, victims, forced into sex by evil-overbearing-seductive males. I’ve met many females when I was single: not at all innocent, dumb, uncreative, brainless sex partners. In fact, I recall being seduced five or six times. Some, I even turned down (to my chagrin and even threats). But that was all my fault too for not allowing seduction. A guy just can’t ‘win,’ and to emphasize the point the Legal Cabal Pimps will see that you get the point and learn that lesson in the back-alley called the court system. Have a nice day?

You corporate lackey! We know all about the propaganda of corporatism! We’ve heard the slogans and the doctrines and the weird terms of corporations as ‘people,’ and how they have so much Power and can get away with murder and inventing and corralling laws and the making and breaking of laws. And you are right ‘in’ there! We see it— and so do many others — quite differently — crony capitalism — phony capitalism — whatever term you feel happy and comfortable about. Nobody in their right mind willingly sells their soul to the devil (except you!). We’ve been over this — with you — and other numbskulls — and we know from where and how you are coming. You probably feel just fine and dandy with the bullshit Facebook has been promoting, and some more that kind, or the other antics that corporate social media is using. You have all the answers but not the soul of America, and its ugly, dark, corporate underbelly. You are right at home (but not here) and probably could care less.

Stephen Erdmann Ron Schmidt (April 9, 2018) Hey Ron, corporations are different than citizen houses and families. There is a dichotomy and a hierarchy involved that is apparently over your head, but it can involve crimes, and if any ‘person’ commits a crime (and corporations are ‘persons’ now) he pays penalties and infractions, and from the looks of things, corporations are not devoid of that and even further looking shows they have many legal suits and case files against them. If they can do no wrong, why is this all taking place? Apparently, what corporations want, and what ‘reality’ is doing and seeing are two different things. There are many other fine distinctions happening, but they are well over any corporate lackey’s head as most of those have their heads stuck so far up the respective corporate butts, they can’t see the light of day! It has been called by many different names, white collar crime, and monopolization, money laundering, on and on and on.

Trump has a specific personality his own, entirely, how can it be any different; do you want him to ‘pretend’ to be a person that he really isn’t, and what might that be? Listen, this Group, site, and profile, as well as many others on Facebook and the Internet say they are for originality, free-thought, free speech, free actions, and then when a President of the U.S. says he is his own person and unique, you slam him. It is okay for ‘you’ to be that way and not a President? If he does something dastardly, it will be exposed, but this wild and constant minute-to-minute character assassination (in the land of the Free, innocent until proven guilty) that appears nothing but a propaganda machine; and dirty politics isn’t any good either, at all. And who might and has been accusing us freethinkers on Facebook of being “unbalanced” as it goes with the territory.

Male and female have that innate animal urge to destroy their neighbors. Animals do it out of necessity to survive. Humans do it out of that unidentifiable element in the deep part of their spirit that must be evil, to be satiated, and quenched, for no other purpose than to gain control, Power, and conquest for pleasure. Both men and women have this ID Monster element; though females have evolved to perform an ‘added’ psychological mechanism and gimmick that males have not evolved into, giving them an added ‘edge’ of attack and destruction. My MiiMii and Dexter, even my outdoor Blackie, do not do these things, because they are civilized animals, not monstrous humans. It is interesting to note, one instance when I was a Security Guard at a bank, I could listen in on the conversations of the female bank tellers, and they had gotten into an unrehearsed, completely free conversation amongst themselves about females and how destructive they were in their actions and the games they play. True history and life, unveiled and unprompted, can be a powerful life-lesson.

Stephen Erdmann: June 12, 2018:  Sadly, trying to find honest and reputable “politicians” is like trying to find a sinless prostitute in a whorehouse, or trying to find the best apple in a barrel of really rotten apples, or….it just is not possible. My Timeline, and the Dissenter/Disinter Group, and my Editorial Comments there, make it very clear: Partisan Politics (in fact, all ‘isms’ and ‘ologies’) is a zero-sum game which reveals only the masquerade that humans operate behind and mask themselves (only paper-tigers, bound up with phony White Hats, pretty ribbons, and decorative paper) — in short, these games of political ‘tag’ are worthless, history is always written by the winners and also distorted by the participants to cover all and subvert all the full facts. Of course, not everyone agrees with me, and most blindly march forward waving the banner of their ‘club,’ ‘group,’ ‘religion,’ etc., etc., blind to the obvious fact that humans do more historical damage to fact-finding than constructive help because of the continuous ‘masquerades.’ One reason we need the 1st Amendment and more impartial fact-finding historians (if such can even possibly exist). Until then, misplaced hero-worship and self-aggrandized ‘ologies’ will forever continue to distort the picture, perhaps without hope.

Some Groups are quite paranoid and hyperventilated, suspecting all people and persons to some curious agenda they ‘have’ or suspect others of having. The JFK groups are mostly like that, being a landscape of suspicion, unreasonable debate, slander, attack and wild accusations. That doesn’t say much for fair and sane investigation, tending to be grade-schoolers and parochially petty. I tend to shy away from such radical and wild climates, not doing science or any one any good: Mostly private “in” Groups, if you are friends of friends of friends, or know same or even if you associate with the wrong people they dislike (not the basis for good journalistic enquiry). Good luck.

But I repeat myself.

(We go back to 2011, for genuine researchers and not just spectators, so use a powerful browser and go searching. Good luck.)


Dissenter/Disinter Magazine goes back to 1967 when I gave birth to a little fanzine that seemed to be my contribution to the media flavor of that time: the Viet Nam war, the aftermath of the Kennedy assassination, the late Jim Moseley’s Saucer News, Ray Palmer’s provoking Search Magazine and Hidden World series, as well as a line of “controversy” radio programs such as Long John Nebel, Suspense, Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar, with television shows such as Science Fiction Theater and Twilight Zone. In St. Louis in the 60s there was WIL “Steve Clark” controversy radio. There was a section of the media that was renaissance to the investigating of the more curious and often sinister elements at that time, and it gave birth to me and others that have continued in that vein to this day (many will include Coast to Coast radio and Alex Jones and others to this list). We still try to contribute to the emblem of “controversy and protest” as a way of getting to the truth.

Subsequently, in the years following, my life embodied further “discovery” of these “realities” of the mysterious Powers-that-Be (which were quite depressing and decorated with flight-or-fight syndromes), and my waking hours were consumed with survival and making “ends meet” (as with so many of the population, I did not have the luxury of always devoting myself to media publishing or even schooling). That story may or may not be left to my memoirs (and my Timeline), if at all.

We try not to “conform” to predispose or status quo “images” that people have in their heads or were born with. We approach all topics from different viewpoints and suggestions, because we realize solutions are never black and white (I hail back to H.G. Wells, Jules Verne, George Orwell, Charles Fort (

…/Protest-The-Use-…/2923915), Info Journal, and a host of New Age and Protest scientists [study my Timeline]). We offer a forum for discussion, within reason. Questions are always open. I, personally, am ‘independent’ politically, neither bowing to the Left or Right, and neither do I encourage others to bow to them either (or any “ism”). It is a matter of finding out who the tyrants are and how much you relinquish to being a slave. Others may participate from their own level of evaluation, that is their right; but I cannot “endorse” everyone’s politics or religion. We offer a platform to search these things out (in a civil and humane fashion: see Preamble) through questioning and debate. How do you see applying censorship in Groups and Timelines? Use it every time something grinds against your personal opinion? And what about the next person? And the next person? Seems that our Founding Fathers grappled with these questions as well. It is amazing with all the common threads of agreement that ‘can’ be found in fighting tyrannical government and evil conspiracies, we are tearing each other apart, for some reason, over petty feuds and personality squabbles that detract from common core efforts (those little nuggets of gold that make us all as one in protest). We (we are speaking editorially) hope we are able to stand in a “common core” against Tyranny and the evils that are associated with it.

In the end, we are all brothers and sisters.


And, yes, I tend to be an activist: A political activist is someone who is involved in the political process for the sake of promoting, impeding or raising awareness of a certain issue or set of issues. Political activism typically involves engagement beyond just voting, whether it be through protest, demonstration or lecture.

PRIVACY Warning: Steve Erdmann:
Due to the fact that Facebook has chosen to involve software that will allow the theft of my personal information, I do declare the following: on this day, September 28, 2016, in response to the new Facebook guidelines and under articles L.111, 112 and 113 of the code of intellectual property, I declare that my rights are attached to all my personal data, drawings, paintings, photos, texts etc… published on my profile. For commercial use of the foregoing my written consent is required at all times.
Those reading this text can copy it and paste it on their Facebook wall. This will allow them to place themselves under the protection of copyright. By this release, I tell Facebook that it is strictly forbidden to disclose, copy, distribute, broadcast, or to take any other action against me on the basis of this profile and/or its contents. The actions mentioned above apply equally to employees, students, agents and/or other staff under the direction of Facebook.
The contents of my profile include private information. The violation of my privacy is punished by the law (UCC 1 1-308 – 308 1 -103 and the Rome Statute). Facebook is now an open capital entity. All members are invited to post a notice of this kind, or if you prefer, you can copy and paste this version. If you have not published this statement at least once, you will tacitly allow the use of elements such as your photos as well as the information contained in your profile update. ##

NOTE: Many  members and  readers say this is worthless and of no legal value. I borrowed it from another Group. Worth a try. SE.


May 21, 2018.  About 3:50 p.m. Greg Ross I’ve shot better than you. Your fat ass easy target


May 23, 2018: Comment on Travis Smith:  Stephen Erdmann –  Nationalism is a fiction created by ‘insiders,’ and like the doctrines of religions, despite their pompous-sounding slogans and professed emblems, usually has gone astray, and even covered evils of the professors that use them. The Founding fathers professed noble causes and principles, but they also had a ‘dark side,’ some of them, and many say they ‘really’ did not break away from the British Commonwealth and Throne. In the name of “goodness,” in the name of “Nationalism,” most countries wage war and so-called ‘defense’ against other countries. Some horrendous crimes are hidden under those banners. What if it is all a joke, a hoax, a deception, and ‘this’ is the way that the human “being,” animal, operates, suffocated by and paying homage to their inner ID Monsters?


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Stephen Erdmann” June 17, 2018. A general comment not directed at anyone in particular: We just don’t reproduce what each person might consider brand-spanking-undisclosed-news items never-seen-before that might titillate their subjective fancies, we achieve and denote and collect interesting tidbits that might be of general interest, usually very up-to-date and of interest. If you want the fantasy that strikes your innermost wishes, start your own library, we don’t cater to just one person.

Stephen Erdmann: June 19, 2018: Need to tell you the story of Walter Lembeck, one of the smartest savvy CEO’s that was married to a judge’s daughter, who turned on him, causing him to lose his children in a custody battle, and the ‘system’ and the judge brought down the whole cabal to protect the judge’s daughter. Walter only put up with that for so long: he studied night and day in the Law Library (and studied court sessions), and became a very ‘intimating’ pro se lawyer and expert, and began winning many filings he made and eventually won his children back and made his ‘ex’ pay some costs—but it didn’t end there. No, the story didn’t end there, unfortunately, and the full force of the cabal was brought against him, his losing property, jobs, and his children once again. Walter borrowed about 300,000 to 600,000 dollars from his mother to file and fight to the local Supreme Court all the way to the national Supreme Court; which they refused to hear his case. Destitute and defeated, he did the only thing he could do to save himself from destruction—he eventually remarried his ex-wife, and last I heard was back in good (?) graces and remarried to his ex-wife: What kind of ending would you call that? We need to talk to Walter, if he is still living, to find out. Life is scary and strange.

Steve Erdmann to Anna Benjamins, June 22, 2018:  Anna, as you probably know by now, several weeks ago, the UFO Digest Magazine was hit by hackers. Since the tech company is in Canada, it is difficult for RM to get readily in touch with them to work on the problem. His last message to me was that “he needed to get in touch with Dirk’s wife about the company but haven’t heard back from her.” Please contact him and help him in any way possible, it is imperative that we get the magazine back in operation. Please keep in touch about this and contact RM as well.

Stephen Erdmann: June 22, 2018:  The noble ideas that the Founding Fathers enveloped in the Bill of Rights were universal and sanctioned for all people, everywhere in as much as the Fathers were very aware of urban life, and not just rural lives, around the globe, big cities, complex governments—they were aware of these things also as they pondered and wrote the Bill of Rights. They were often educated lawyers from Britain and other places of higher education. It really wasn’t framed by rural people at all. Those who want to tamper with these noble and holistic ideas are fools that are rather tyrannical in their primitive thinking to destroy and reconstruct with as much damage and power as they can get.

Stephen Erdmann: June 23, 2018: This is a growing problem across the broad scope of the media everywhere. It is happening to Facebook, YouTube, and the Internet in general—which has been invented and control by the government from the beginning. People don’t realize how controlled their lives are across the span of living, and from birth. It is the way that despots and tyrants operated from time immemorial. We need a spiritual and universal awakening. Every day, another victim is added to the list, and occasionally, they wake up to the tyranny and slavery when it hits them personally, but not enough or often. Contact me and my Foundation to fight back: or locate me at or Facebook (if they allow it and don’t censor it). We are under attack!

Stephen Erdmann: June 23, 2018: What should have been plain to most citizens long ago, but apparently not, neither party nor partisan politics are void of and free from tyrannical thinking and the enslavement of the “controllers.” They all want to wear the “White Hat,” when in reality, all hats are smudged, dark, dirty, greasy ‘hats.’ Apparently, everyone is lacking ‘mirrors’ in their homes and domains! The illusion of “my gang versus your gang, and my gang is right” should have long ago passed into oblivion, but we cling to the myths and deception and mind-manipulation taught to use by our enslavers and from birth. Our Controllers and enslavers depend on that stupidity and our lack of spiritual insight. They want us as crude and dumbed-down Orwellian Paroles to manipulate. It has been that way through history. Trying to measure the “good” points versus the “bad” points could be a skill attempted for a professional and advanced historian, but it does little for now in viewing “my side is holier than your side” misconceptions to date. As culprit, Errol Childress told detective Rust Cohle in the TV series TRUE DETECTIVE: “Take off your mask, little priest!”

Stephen Erdmann: June 23, 2018:  Geneva Hagen Any way you cut it, the Founding Fathers had put hard and long-thought into the Bill of Rights and it was meant for posterity and to be universal. When I speak of tyrannical-thinking, I am speaking in generalities and point it at all people with these ugly ID Monster “Masks” that hide their errors and evil vanities. There are those who wish the worst for themselves and their fellow man all under the disguise of self-righteousness, holiness, and Control of others, misguided they be in their inflated worth to destruct the Bill of Rights. If there be a way to perfect those, if even possible, so be it; but the UN can’t even follow their own guidelines for Human Rights. This is because the human being is basically ‘vampires’ that never see their own image in the mirror. This is why even the culprit Errol Childress said to detective Rust Cohle in the TV series TRUE DETECTIVE: “Take off your mask, little priest!”

Stephen Erdmann: July 3, 2018:

Becky Olmstead
Becky Olmstead: Travis Smith …um…yea….men don’t make good hookers 😉

Peter Corlis
Peter Corlis: power corrupts

Peter Corlis
Peter Corlis: But I’ve seen many good men taken to the cleaners in divorce settlements…

Stephen Erdmann: The story to human cruelty can only be divided between females and males, humans are stinkers and fallen creatures. There are many examples of the ‘techniques’ that females use, and in their evolutionary past, they have grown added ‘edges’ of cruelty. Because of their physically weaker bodies, they have adopted strong and more cunning psychological mechanisms to combat things they consider threats. A symbiotic relationship has developed between them and the Legal Industry. You see this symbiotic machination in nature all the time.

Once, when I was a security guard at a bank, the female tellers were speaking amongst themselves, openly and unrehearsed, as to that added ‘cruelty’ ‘edge’ that females possessed. It was the frank and candid conversation with no holds barred; all those female tellers were agreeing that their sex contained those extra aspects of cruelty and their sex was by-far experts at these gimmicks and evils.

In another case, a man was confronted with divorce when his wife involved him in litigation and was trying to obtain the family home and custody of his children. She had many lovers and had been conspiring with an attorney secretly for many years. His lawyers told him that he had no chance to win unless he obtained concrete proof. This he did with a telephone tap and recording over a number of weeks in which he not only recorded the lovers but the cruelty of female friends and neighbors who equally conspired to sabotage the man. At one point in the tape, the wife suggested placing poison in the husband’s soup. The conspiracy was astounding.

This is no fiction—it is completely true—I heard the uncensored tape. The conspiracy is astounding. It involved not only neighbors and supposed friends of the wife, but attorneys that she was seeing for years and years, planning on the caper. So much for the goodness of attorneys. A few weeks after he had finally paid off the house mortgage, he was presented with the divorce petition.

This same female, now single and having married a wealthy businessman (who died from cancer?), has set her sights on doing everything possible, true to her nature, to destroy the love and caring of her children for their father. And there also was some hoaxing involved in the use of Parental Alien Syndrome (PAS): the story never seemed to end. But I believe you are getting the picture, and that we’ll save for another time.

Typically, as a metaphor, a dinosaur monster charges the cave in which the caveman and his wife and children exist. The cavewoman screams and shouts instructions at the husband to attack and destroy the monster—to which he does to protect his family. He was physically stronger—but who do you think was actually in control of the situation? The real puppeteer?

Of course, we are not saying males are innocent creatures, no human or homo sapien is! Both can and do evil acts; there are an evolutionary difference that have their own special and inherent peculiarities, and as the saying goes ‘Viva la difference!” —- but maybe not so happy as some ‘differences’ can be deadly and scary and uncharted. Uncharted! There has been very little scientific ‘study’ about the aforementioned “edge.”

July 23, 2018.  To Tony Elliott and Emil Donofrio:  Stephen Erdmann:  Both of you philosophers are wrong and also correct, I’ve said all I can say in my pinned Editorial Comments, spoken from the heart and my own life experiences. People live in rigged ‘boxes’ taught from birth and most won’t budge an inch to get out of them. I still have isolated prejudices myself that I am working on. Emil is certainly correct: no one—no one–has created true Capitalism, and they are not living in a real ‘Capitalism.’ It is an unreal, phony doctrine that Capitalists hide behind and mask their evil intentions. So, in reality, these people are living in a fairytale that never actually is taking place, other than what is on paper. To bolster that belief, these people use all kinds of slogans and banners and parade about under “Nationalism” and a lot of flag-waving and political sermons. However, likewise, all nations—every one of them–do the same thing. They do it for Power, for Money, for Control (name me one communistic or socialistic nation that doesn’t). You see, humans work this way, it is their innate mindset. It leads to all kinds of hidden agendas and Black Projects and political intrigue. We can hope and wish for some buried element of a soul, some hidden decency behind it all—but just how realistic is that when we see the harsh reality about us telling us the true story? Progressives, Socialism, Communism are also just ‘paper’ doctrine and we actually see that they, very much like their capitalistic counterparts, are probably identical, and these people also are based on Power, Money, and Control. And all these human savages will do almost anything to keep it that way. And then add the further hidden ingredient of ‘global’ partnering in these hidden and evil endeavors, and you might as well throw out that entire band standing and preaching out the window.

July 26, 2018/ Steve Erdmann on J. Elbert Whitlow’s Timeline.  Stephen Erdmann

Alex Johnson:  Bingo, you got that right, as I said above, it is the ‘taboo’ to look at women as anything but innocent, helpless, holy little angels, even after they had committed all kinds of crimes and evil acts, we just keep them on a pedestal. Took millions of years to get that programmed.

The Legal Cabal ‘must’ define love and marriage because they are the ones that construct reality in the courtroom; literally, invent it. And it is set-up to facilitate this way because of the ‘money.’ If they can’t control the situation to make their ‘profit,’ they will construct ‘any’ human endeavor to control and profit from it. No escape. That is one reason they invented “Palimony” because people started living together outside of marriage to escape their greedy grasp, and they invented Palimony to fill that gap. You see how their minds work. Not just in personal relationships, but in every corner of society: control, control, control, greed, greed, greed.

August 18, 2018 in Group to Tony Elliott:    The more basic and even accurate cause of human slavery and suppression goes far beyond any “ism” or philosophy, it is despotism and tyrannical thinking and that is global. Trying to put human evil and the human ID Monster in nice, neat little ‘boxes’ only shows our failure to recognize the real culprit and the basic evil involved. All ‘leaders’ have shared this evil trend since history recorded. There is no political “safe haven,” and what is written on ‘paper’ is nothing but masks that hide this innate manipulation.

October 7, 2018.  Stephen Erdmann: This is ridiculous: democrats are pitch-perfect, holy, never make mistakes, are rational blameless creatures__ this goes against science, history and almost every other testimony. Ford was even speaking in a phony little girl- pity-me-pity-me voice, had a growing history of CIA and radical Left involvement, and this in our latest findings of Deep State Mind Control and deceptions of the Military-Industrial-Corporate-Complex-Matrix world that we sadly find ourselves in. Take a long cold look at history (which the mobsters and radical Left or Right refuse to do): humans are savages and all their doctrines and “isms” are just ‘masks’ to hide their evil behind. Turning politics into a savage mob action with verbal and physical ‘attacks’ belies any good intentions. It only gets worse, never better. Connecting the dots are only for the more intelligent historians, and they won’t shy away from finding the true culprits, which, sadly, are on both political aisles and even beyond all politics. Females and radical feminists always did have the upper hand against males with their innate sexuality which evolved over the eons and promote this symbiosis with the Legal Cabal. They are not now, and never have been, the powerless, innocent angles their mob-actions make them out to be. Even males will sell-out to protect this ‘TABOO’ under some misguided White Knight fantasy. Ask many of males that have had to confront the Legal Cabal and discover they have only five (5) foes when they are shanghaied into court: 1) His lawyer, 2) her lawyer, 3) the judge, 4) her innate sexuality, and the status (deceptive and hidden and masked) quo.


Facebook, June 16, 2019

Stephen Erdmann: I will share this, I just found my daughter at home, finally after many attempted visits; a totally different person than I last saw her and not at all like the little girl I knew at one time. Someone has been working hard on her behind the scenes, but I understand this is what happens to men and people that have been caught in the clutches of the Legal Cabal. It is called Parental Alienation Syndrome. I am beginning to understand some of the missing pieces and how — after five court modifications and sessions (each one is like a new divorce) —an attempt was by Jefferson City to even, after all these ‘finalized’ sessions, to collect more support (was disallowed and rebuked by a city of St. Louis judge). That would be session number six. She said I had abandoned her. Seems to me to have been the other way around, by her mother and other people. I would have gladly opened my arms and heart to her, if they would have just approached me in a respectful and proper way, rather than demonized and threaten me (as if I did not have enough to survive under.) There is so much more – much more – to the story, so much more – but no one to listen.

Any time the government and the Legal Cabal get their fingers in to your life, you are screwed, they will make you a slave or the court – men -women – any breathing person. They will try to destroy your life, take control to their satisfaction and profit. Same thing happens to men: there are just as many horror stories. The government does not care, it is all done to their agendas, I’ve lived with this for most of my life, as well as millions of other persons. It is not a lone-happening story but the slavery most people are living under and do not realize this, men, women, children, cats, dogs, anything that is breathing. I’ve been trying to fight it.

June 18, 2019: I have found, in most divorce alienation, that the legal system is only another factor that is further nails in the coffin, another wheel in the mechanization’s, added weight, that usually works against the participants. It certainly doesn’t help them, other than the legal system’s professed doctrines and advertised publicity. Add on to that, when one parent becomes the target of the narcissism and inherent psychosis of the other parent who, not only allows, but fosters and grows, and even programs (using their full power, availability. and ingenuity) the events — “that” becomes a powerful tool of the system. I have two daughter cats that I would in no time desert or do ill to. How much better animals are compared to the savagery of humans, and we could learn so much from them. What is also sad, is that my children will not now learn about the horrid details that I know about: the affairs and conspiracy that my ex-wife was involved in, ugly, cutting stories, for which I sought counseling to save the marriage and even had a remarriage in the church: all for naught, it was as if it was somehow planned behind the scenes as if a sheep led to the slaughter. In my case, even having being caught (the lovers eventually squealed on her) she wanted to get the paid-off family home (a lot of overtime) for her and her lover (s). They will never know how the stark and convoluted reality of all this hurts: you wouldn’t believe this, unless you saw it in a movie. And the deep scares it has left. The forlorn dreams of reconciliation with my children, which were killed many years ago, unbeknownst to me.

December 31, 2019: The connection between December 25th Pagan celebrations of Winter solstice, — the “gods” of antiquity, — “the sun dying, “– “Cursed Nimrod/Christmas’s Tree,” the Satanic Infanticide Tree, — and today Pauline god of Jesus Christ.

Pagan societies, such as the Carthaginians, ancient Greece and Rome had a very different view about the value of human life than we do today. They legalized and encouraged killing their children as religious sacrifices to their gods almost universally. Nor can it be said to be simply a practice to preserve few resources to save the whole culture, but it was practiced by rich, poor citizens and slaves.

Leading pagan leaders and philosophers also encouraged the practice of Infanticide. Cicero defended the Infanticide by referring to the Twelve Tables. Plato, Aristotle and Cornelius Tacitus recommended infanticide as legitimate state policy. (Histories 5.5.). Even Seneca, otherwise known for his relatively high moral standards, stated, “we drown children at birth who are weakly and abnormal.” (De Ira 1.15.) There is no dispute among historians and informed laypersons that Infanticide was incredibly widespread in the ancient pagan world.

In both approaches, infants were particularly vulnerable to infanticide by those that should have been protecting the helpless, were the ones who were killing them. It was very uncommon for even wealthy, upper-class families to have more than one daughter in ancient Greece and Rome. An inscription found in Delphi illustrates this quite well. Of more than 600 second-century families, only one percent had raised two daughters. It was openly approved, encouraged and a very common practice, as it was justified by law and advocated by philosophers in the Pagan society. (Rodney Stark, The Rise of Christianity, pages 97-98 & 118. See also: Durant, op. cit., page 56; Susan Scrimshaw, “Infanticide in Human Populations: Societal and Individual Concerns,” in Infanticide; Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives, eds. Glenn Hausfater and Sarah Hardy, page 439.)

In Greece and ancient Rome a child was virtually its father’s chattel-e.g., in Roman law, the Patria Protestas granted the father the right to dispose of his offspring as he saw fit. In Sparta, the decision was made by a public official. The Twelve Tables of Roman Law held: “Deformed infants shall be killed” (De Legibus, 3.8.). Of course, deformed was broadly construed and often meant no more than the baby appeared “weakly.” The Twelve Tables also explicitly permitted a father to expose any female infant. (Stark, op. cit., page 118.).

According to Plutarch, the Carthaginians “offered up their own children, and those who had no children would buy little ones from poor people and cut their throats as if they were so many lambs of young birds; meanwhile the mothers stood by without a tear or moan.” (Moralia 2.17.). According to Wikipedia, “Infanticide was common in all well studied ancient cultures, including those of ancient Greece, Rome, India, China, and Japan” with many forms: a parent directly killing the child, usually by drowning. The infant was simply held underwater until it was dead. Relatively quick, inexpensive, and the water muffled the cries; In other forms, the family would simply take the child out beyond the city and abandon it to die from exposure to the elements. In sum, pagans practiced infanticide.

On a certain day during winter solstice of December 25th, pagan societies in ancient times would make a list of all the things they wanted to the false god of prosperity for the upcoming year according to the list they’d written. They would line up with their children in their hand and they would heat their hands on this horror cast idol iron of the god of prosperity’s burning statue’s hot hands until their hands were red as a fire brand, then place and burning their babies and small children alive on the burning idol statue’s hot hands of the god of prosperity as an offering for prosperity. Amidst the hideous stench of burning flesh, and the screams and cries of hundreds of babies pierced the night air, until nothing remained except charred ashes. The people in the ancient world would begin to celebrate their false gods (they worshiped many) This practice was known in the bible as making your children pass through the fire. It was ritual child sacrifice and absolutely cursed by the One God of Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac.

Various ancient celebrations honoring this most blood-thirsty false gods prevalent today such as Christmas Eve, Baby New Year (the symbol of the child-victim), and the Janus false god (January) New year’s Eve macabre pagan holiday are tied to one another and have come down to the today world Christmas traditions celebrated on December 25th honoring the Jesuits and Molechian Zionists New World Order who want 90 per cent of the whole world dead in Purim (star pentagon) human sacrificed to Lucifer according to the Georgia Guidestones.

Early Christian documents reveal that there was a clash of cultures when Christianity converted previously pagan Romans and Greeks by instructing them that infanticide was immoral and murder. (The Didache, 90 -110 CE). Another early Christian document, the Epistle of Barnabas (130 CE), also explicitly condemned infanticide and prohibited its practices as necessary parts of the “way of light.” Moreover, by the end of the second century, “Christians were not only proclaiming their rejection of abortion and infanticide, but had begun direct attacks on pagans, and especially pagan religions for sustaining such crimes,” as the accepted practice. (Stark, op. cit., page 125., Robin L. Fox op. cit., page 350.).

But so long as Christianity remained a disfavored–and sometimes persecuted–religion, their appeals to the pagan government to act against infanticide were ineffectual in changing government policy. This Christian ‘brotherly love’ has been minimized as a reason for turning to the Church, as if only those who were members could know of it. In fact, it was widely recognized,” according to Durant, “in many instances Christians rescued exposed infant, baptized them, and brought them up with the aid of community funds.” Through these efforts, Christians worked to diminish some of the causes of infanticide. (Fox,op. cit., page 324., Durant, op. cit., page 598.) Clearly, one unique and valuable contribution of Christianity to Western Civilization was its opposition to infanticide. “but these patterns persisted among pagans far into the Christian era.” (Stark, op. cit., page 97-98.)

Christmas Tree “Cursed Nimrod’s Tree,” the Satanic Infanticide Celebration Tree on December 25th.
Christmas trees were originally decorated with burning candles made from the fat of the burned bodies of child sacrifice victims. Instead of Christmas balls, decapitated heads of sacrificial child victims were hung from the tree. Caroling was originally done by rotund old fat naked singers engaging in licentious behavior. Instead of Santa, they worshiped death, the grim reaper with his scythe (false god Saturn) who demanded child sacrifice. It is a grotesque blood splattered gore fest of barbaric sadistic delight for devil worshippers

The bible forbids putting up the Christmas tree: Jeremiah 10:1-4. Deuteronomy 16:21, Acts 17:29, just as is repeated over and over in the Qur’an that Nimrod cast Abraham on fire, and the bible says in book of chronicles, ‘the kings would not get rid of the high places, the idols, groves and other items of pagan worship and after their deaths, they did wickedly in the sight of the Lord. They will burn in hell for their involvement in paganism.’ The Christmas tree is Zaqqoum, the cursed tree as depicted in (the Qur’an17:60, 37:62 -68, 44:43, 56:52), inimical to the Abrahamic Monotheistic Tree of Ishmael & Isaac.

The Zaqqoum “Cursed Nimrod’s Tree” that springs out of the bottom of hell’ is known when Nimrod married Semiramis (i.e. Dumez and Inanna). The Anunnaki used to marry their first- and second-degree relatives, in order to preserve their “royal” blood and the right to the throne. Semiramis later became known as Ishtar, which is pronounced… Easter. Ishtar and Moloch like all other Anunnaki “gods”, because of his long life span, they were known by many names throughout history, among which: Molech, Nimrod or Ba’al (which was the highest possible title, meaning Lord). But his first name was Morduch, and he was the son of the supreme Anunnaki leader on Earth, Enki, and his wife Damkina.

The Zaqqoum began shortly after the flood with the birth of Tammuz as the reincarnation of Nimrod. When Nimrod/Dumez died, his cousin-wife Semiramis/Inanna, claimed that a full-grown evergreen tree sprang overnight from a dead tree stump. And the New Year is coming in as a young child portrayed as children ready to be sacrificed. The New Year’s still to come are Victims of child sacrifice were always heavily veiled so that their parents would not recognize when their child was burned.
The pagan Romans honored the false god, Saturn, who was usually depicted holding a scythe (death’s sickle). Saturn IS the grim reaper, the figure that emerges from and who is looking after children and demanded them for child sacrifice. It wasn’t just the romans, even some Israelites and pre-Islamic Ishmaelites (Arab Jahiliyyah) turned from the One God of Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac, and even offered their children in sacrifice to this vile bloodthirsty Saturn false gods.

It’s pagan chronic pedophiles infanticide filth! The recent kings of the North in the Illuminati and Freemasonry Occult still practicing a chilling representation of “Father Time” and “Baby New Year” that can be found in many illustrations from the 19th century. Father Time is Saturn, the god of time is standing in front of a large clock, holding his scythe illustrated that the old years kids are passing away as full-grown raped, tortured and murdered, their bodies wrapped in burial shrouds. They do so as the Illuminati and Freemasonry occult privacy pact so they won’t rat out group activities of the coven. If they ever betray the occult privacy pact, they are ousted with their names flashed across the world news channels as being a pedophile to completely destroy them.

It is a reason why we have human sacrifices all over the planet, in some of the most prevalent cultures, is because the Anunnaki required them. Hundreds of thousands of children are kidnapped every single year, most times with the help of the highest religious institutions such as the Vatican, NWO Secret Evil Agenda in Britain and USA and practiced it behind closed doors by powerful secret societies such as the Illuminati, Skull & Bones and the highest-ranking Freemasons. They are sacrificed and dedicated for Purim blood sacrifices to Lucifer (Moloch) on Wars for Business Religion (profit and power). The burial sites for the bones and ashes of sacrificed children have been unearthed. These places were known as Tophet’s.


800.000 American children disappear every year
One Every 40 seconds only in USA

Now, there are two versions of the story, one stating that Dumez’s anniversary was on December 25th and his spirit would visit the evergreen tree every year on this date to leave gifts upon it. The second version states that the son of Semiramis, Tammuz, by his dead husband, Dumez, was born on December 25th. Whatever version is true, two things are clear: the Zaqqoum “Christmas tree” is in fact “Cursed Nimrod’s Tree” and December 25th is a Satanic celebration! Inanna image was idolized in the statue of Lady Liberty. (See: The Secret Worship of the Illuminati: The Statue of Liberty is Anunnaki Goddess Inanna.)

“Do not kill your children for fear of poverty; it is We Who provide for them as well as for you. Killing them is surely a grave sin.”(the Qur’an 17.31)

The “gods” of antiquity.
Though romans quit offering human sacrifice early on, but blood was still spilled for the “gods” of antiquity by the gladiators during the saturnalia celebrations in December and even Africans predominantly worshipped Saturn and were too killing their children to this ruthless fictional representation of false god Saturn (Satan) that he set up to deceive people. A false god Saturn is satanic child killing deity and had attributes most similar to Satan himself. Christmas is his religious festival. Participation in Christmas celebrations gives honor to this evil of false god Saturn.

Other “gods” of antiquity is Che mosh, the horned one (aka Molech, Krampus: the false god of witches, etc.) was represented as a huge cast iron statue in the shape of a horned god with an extended hands as if he is ready to receive something. It was known as the god of prosperity. Also, Krampus is a Christmas devil companion of Santa (i.e. anagram for Satan) who punishes children by beating them with a stick or steals them in his sack. Google images of Nimrud bags/sacks. It is currently Israel Secret Intelligence Service’s (ISIS) sacks filled with human heads.“bags”&safe=strict&client=opera&hs=kd0&sa=X&biw=1326&bih=626&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=9ZuISWvXdU5iSM%253A%252CuemyzHna9GmHlM%252C_&vet=1&usg=AI4_-kQoRVQx82kGwdPRAXmy4-inuKK_qg&ved=2ahUKEwjUzrDIheDmAhWe6nMBHcWcD-UQ9QEwAHoECAoQBg#imgrc=9ZuISWvXdU5iSM:

The figure resembles another horned being, that of Moloch (i.e. Anunnaki “god” Morduch) who was also given children through fire or to a giant throne. But that is another pagan/Anunnaki “Easter. Celebration” that was adopted by modern religions. The “gods” then used to eat the fresh hearts of the sacrificed children and drink their adrenaline-filled blood. Today’s highest ranking prelates still conduct these rituals in secret ceremonies, while the rest of them are required to conduct an open phony version of the same ritual, the liturgy/mass.

The “gods” of antiquity were flesh and bones Anunnaki and the so called “pagan” religions that followed all the grotesque elements of this hideous gods are contained in worshipped them under different names and almost identical cult rituals. This cannibalistic traditions and occult rituals of the Liturgy/Mass is the most prevalent of all today’s the so called “pagan” religions that followed, worshiped them under different names and almost with identical occult rituals of paganism (i.e. the worship of the Anunnaki colonizers “flesh and bones”), and including Christianity, in which all Christians across the planet are required to pretend drinking the blood and eating the flesh of – allegedly – Jesus Christ. The bishop clothes, miter and staff of today’s prelates are identical to those of the Babylonian priests of Dagon, which represented their god-fish Dagon (i.e. Enki wearing his astronaut suit and staff-shaped weapon).

The connection between the Pagan celebrations of Winter solstice, “the sun dying” and the today Pauline god of Jesus Christ.

According to popular tradition, Christmas is celebrated on 25 th December to honor the birth of Jesus. However, no records exist in the Bible or elsewhere to suggest that Jesus was actually born on this date, which raises the important question – why is Christmas celebrated on 25 December? In fact, the selection of this date has its root in both Persian and paganism gods traditions.

The Catholic Encyclopedia admits “there is no month in the year to which respectable authorities have not assigned Christ’s birth.” Since it appears unlikely that Jesus was born on 25th December, it raises the logical question of why Christmas is celebrated on this date. The answer points back to the Romans’ pagan celebrations of the winter solstice. Two celebrations in particular took place around December 25 – the Saturnalia, and the birthday of the Sun god, Mithra (Catholic Encyclopedia). The Saturnalia festival began on 17 th December and later expanded with festivities through to the 25 December. It paid tribute to Saturn, the agricultural god of Sowing and Husbandry, and was associated with the renewal of light and the coming of the new year. The holiday was celebrated with a sacrifice in the Temple of Saturn, a public banquet, followed by private gift-giving, continual partying, and a carnival atmosphere

Followers of the cult of Mithras, which became popular among the military in the Roman Empire from the 1 st to 4 th centuries AD, are believed to have celebrated his birthday on 25th December, which was the most holy day of the year for many Romans. The worship of the Sun god, Mithra (proto-Indo-Iranian ‘Mitra’), has its origin in Persia, from around the 6 th century BC, and was later adapted into Greek as ‘Mithras’. The most popular hypothesis is that Roman soldiers encountered this religion during military excursions to Persia.

While it is widely accepted that the Mithraic New Year and the birthday of Mithras was on 25 December and was celebrated on this day as part of the Roman Natali’s Invictus festival, others have argued that the Natali’s Invictus was a general festival of the sun, and was not specific to the Mysteries of Mithras. Nevertheless, it is clear that 25 December was an important day for the Romans and revolved around a celebration of the sun.

There are, however, a number of reasons to suggest that Jesus was probably not born in December. Firstly, Luke 2:8 states that on the night of Jesus’ birth ” there were also in that same country shepherds living out of doors and keeping watches in the night over their flocks.” Many scholars agree that this would have been unlikely in December, as shepherds would have been keeping their flock under cover during the cold winter months. Some scholars have stated that shepherds would not watch their flock overnight in December but would keep them under cover. ‘The Good Shepherd’ from the early Christian catacomb of Domitila/Donatella (Crypt of Lucina, 200-300 CE). ( Wikimedia Commons ). Secondly, it is written in the Bible that Joseph and Mary travelled to Bethlehem to register in a Roman census (Luke 2:1-4). However, such censuses were not taken in winter, when temperatures often dropped below freezing and roads were in poor condition.

The Pagan solstice dates to celebrate the return of the sun (…son) were absorbed into the Christian calendar so that there would be a link to encourage pagans to give up their beliefs and gods and move to Christianity. Some claim to have found a lot of pangamic parallels and similarities with Christianity, particularly in the cult of the god Attis. Attis was associated with the goddess Cybele. The cult of Attis was a religion which involved orgiastic rites and rituals. The priests of the religion, the Gallai, were eunuchs. This requirement was part of a re-enactment of one of the principle myths regarding Attis and Cybele. It is also claimed that Attis was born on December 25th and that he was born of the virgin, Nana, and that Attis died on a tree and rose from the dead. Or of Isis, the Egyptian goddess who fed the Nile with her tears and, in the past, was responsible for nurturing Pharaoh and giving him his divine power to govern Egypt effectively. Mithra, the sun-god of Mithraism, said to be born on December 25th, but also Osiris, Horus, Hercules, Bacchus, Adonis, Jupiter, [Nimrod]/Tammuz, and other sun-gods were also supposedly born at what is today called the ‘Christmas’ season, the winter solstice!” (“The Two Babylon’s” by Alexander Hislop, p.93.)

When King Constantine converted to Christianity in the fourth century, he had quite a challenge ahead of him with regard to converting an empire full of pagans. It was therefore decided to celebrate the birth of Jesus on a date that was already sacred according to pagan traditions. So as a compromise with paganism and in an attempt to give the pagan holidays Christian significance, it was simply decided that the birthday of the Sun God would also be the birthday of the Son of God. The Catholic Encyclopedia quotes an early Christian with saying, “O, how wonderfully acted Providence that on that day on which that Sun was born…. Christ should be born”.

Isa al-Masih (Christ) is stolen from us and renamed because King Constantine felt his god was superior to the Christ and it was done to make it easier for his Pagani Empire to convert..

Biblical Evidence Shows Jesus Christ Wasn’t Born on Dec. 25…/biblical-evidence-shows-jesus-christ-…

You can reach Steve Erdmann – at  – or
You can friend him at Facebook  – or –  visit the Dissenter/Disinter Group – at –!/groups/171577496293504/. 
His Facebook email is
You can also visit his articles at the following:,,,,
Alternate Perception Magazine:,


I can’t believe my Eyes!

Believing is not Seeing

Posted on  by steveerdmann      Rate This

“There is only one cause of unhappiness: the false beliefs you have in your head, beliefs so widely spread, so commonly held, that it never occurs to you to question them.”  Anthony De Mello

By: Steve Erdmann

A similar article can be found at

              BREAK AWAY MAN

It is always refreshing when trained and thoroughly experienced investigators suggest fresh and overlooked avenues of a scientific phenomenon. Dr. John B. Alexander has done that with his ideas of a “step back process” to study precognitive sentient phenomena (PSP), of which UFOs are certainly a part, but only a part, of an all-encompassing and “anfractuous” phenomenon “beyond current comprehension”.

Dr. John B. Alexander, author of The Warrior’s Edge, speaks as a Green Beret combat veteran, a retired Colonel – U.S Army Project Manager at Los Alamos National Laboratory, NATO studies of nonlethal weapons, the National Research Council, Council on Foreign Relations, a consultant to the National Intelligence Council, the CIA, the U.S Special Operations Command, and the Army Science Board (UFOS: Myths, Conspiracies, andRealities, St. Martin’s Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York 10010, 2011, $25.99. 305 pages).

Alexander “DE myths” at the same time he supports the reality of the phenomena.  One of the major fallacies, he says, is that the government is in the “know” and THEY are out to cover up the facts. To the contrary, Alexander set up an Advanced Theoretical Physics Project (ATP) to try and discover if such an “inner sanctum” group exists. Alexander queried many very high-security, high-level personnel:  they all assumed THEY existed but no one knew who THEY were.

“The ultimate answer appears to be that nobody does have that responsibility,” says Alexander. “While this notion runs counter to all of the conspiracy theorists’ proclamations, that was the bottom line.”

The other myth he contends with, aside from THEY, is that surely the government must be expending large amounts of “black budget money” to study UFOs, crashed or otherwise; and it largely has to do with The Budget and priorities.

“As big as the DOD budget is, it remains the aforementioned zero-sum game, meaning for every project that gains funding, another must lose theirs,” says Alexander.  “Interdepartmental, as well as intradepartmental, battles over funding are vicious and played by the most ruthless, merciless bastards on the planet.”

The DOD is run by Program Objective Memorandum or POM.

Department of Defense and other government programs are “a continual process in which programs are constantly being evaluated with a myriad of comptroller vultures waiting to pounce on any perceived programmatic weakness,” says Alexander.  “Just note that most research and development programs, as well training funds, have taken tremendous cuts and are constantly under scrutiny as bill payers (sources from which funds can be transferred to other projects).” 

Funds are usually already dedicated to some current project and hawkish eyes plan theft on various levels; even Black Projects are not exempt from oversight: They have Technical Review Committees and bodies that determine what gets funded or not.

“With highly classified programs, there are fewer legislators involved in the process,” says Alexander, “but they are there.” The Department of Defense (DOD) fits under the Executive Branch, and everything comes together to the President of the United States, (even with his aides) “over everything: just because a program is Black does not allow underlings to determine the validity of reporting acquired information.”


U.S government agencies usually run out of money long before they run out of projects with validated requirements.  When extralegal or clandestine means to move funds are attempted there are catastrophic results; huge cross-jurisdictional issues, resulting in Congressional and criminal investigations of misapplication of funds. Even “flexions” (powerful players who move seamlessly from opposing positions of power) are not agile enough to operate above all the sectors.  I am reminded of the eventual exposure of the BCCI banking scandal; as well as the Mafia-CIA associations in the 1960s; others.

‘When you consider the number of people who would have had access to critical information over a period of more than a half a century,” says Alexander, “the resulting silence on UFO matters does not make sense.”

Worse yet, when key individuals “express a personal interest in UFOs”, and they are mistakenly to mean their organizations accept responsibility or involvement in studying the phenomena – which they don’t have.

The truth of the matter is, says Alexander, that the government has never been able to get anything right – including UFO investigation. Just look at the mess they’ve made of things such as bungling secrecy, war, money, and other responsibilities on down the years.


Surprisingly, the governments have disclosed from time to time, as individuals, that UFOs are real (as one example, Alexander cites Colonel General Igor Maitsev’s, Chief of Staff of the Soviet Air Dense Forces statement of March, 1990: “Skeptics and believers both can take this as official confirmation of the existence of UFOs”).  Generals, Presidents, Congressmen have stated their belief in the reality of UFOs.  What governments have not  been willing to do is to endorse a bogus theory or unequivocally uphold subjective and private fantasies.

“The probability of an all-out invasion by hostile extraterrestrials may rank in Hollywood, but it is deemed as an extraordinarily low probability by officials who would be responsible for organizing a human response,” says Alexander, “It is in this content that the role of the U.S government‘s involvement is studying UFOs should be examined.”

Instead, Alexander is impressed by “The Trickster” actions of PSP and the Catch-22 involved, which officials run away from and can’t handle, or they are somehow “held back.”

Alexander, however, doesn’t skimp on sensational PSP cases: one is the Cash-Landrum case; another is the March 16, 1967, Maelstrom Air Force Base case; the Robert Salas case; the December,1980 Royal Air Force at Bent waters, United Kingdom case; the Skin walker-ranch-Utah-Bigelow case; and many others. Unfortunately, the public (especially UFO ‘believers’) assumes the government has a deep interest in UFOs just because anomalies are reported.  Alexander says this is not true: “Large institutions are very bureaucratic in nature.”

Many officials are heavily restrained by ridicule to their careers if they spoke assertively on UFOs. Likewise, Alexander says: “There is no credible evidence that reverse-engineered ARV exist (Alien Reproduction Vehicles from UFO crashes).” THEY supposedly have captured the secrets of limitless energy at very low cost—which come under the ownership of the American people—and solve most of the “massive socio-economic problems” facing mankind.  This hasn’t  happened.

Apparently, as well, according to Alexander, Ben Rich of the super-secret Skunk Works, denies his previous alleged comments about ETs and Black Projects.


(“Irrational thinking will never be overcome by empirical evidence.” Jon Stewart, host of The Daily Show on Comedy Central.)

Particularly interesting is Alexander’s comments on skeptics and their psychological problems. Alexander lists cases of Precognitive Sentient Phenomena – some very startling and striking – and many suggesting that the extraterrestrial hypothesis is too limited.  The skeptics, he says, are not geared to study PSP because of mental defects:

“Nor is it likely that any amount of evidence would persuade them to change their minds.  While I consider myself to be rather skeptical of many claims, with good reason, they would better be classified as debunkers. The basic premise is that these anomalous events can’t be true, therefore they aren’t. If they cannot disprove the anomaly, they assume that the prosaic, commonplace answer has not yet been found – but they are equally confident that none exists.  Facts are not of consequence, just inconvenient details and often ignored.”

Alexander says such “debunkers” suffer from a mental disorder of sorts which he calls cerebral centrism, “a typical American position in which we believe that we are smarter than everyone else.”  Some believe that 99 percent of everything science will learn has already been discovered.  UFOs are usually reduced to ‘flares’ and ‘astronomical bodies.’

The debunkers reply on discussing weak cases, and their extrapolating to the whole field.  Debunkers believe in the impossibility of these events; however, as Hal Puthoff notes and Alexander says. “….they are not sufficiently skeptical to question the views – ones that often do not fit the facts of the situation – that are aligned with their own mythology.”  Fear, atheism, hostility towards religion, animus about new horizons in physics are known threads in the psychopathology of debunkers.


The ‘flip side’ of this aberration-coin is just as frightening, if not more so.  Alexander acknowledges that a larger percentage of the population has elements of mental illness, particularly various forms of schizoid illness and schizophrenia.

“The fantasies associated with UFO phenomena are boundless…created an exotic tapestry…important downside for serious research…outrageous tales provide fodder for ad hominem attacks…having serious mental health problems is far greater than generally imagined…” (Pages 267-268)

The last two mentioned factors alone can be an epidemic that has scared away serious interest by the government and led to ventures like the riddance of the UFO Project by the Air Force and the creation of the Condon UFO Committee – as well as the continual avoidance by the public.  What do you do with blatantly uncontrollable phantasmagoria; and what about the accompanying fraud?


One added aspect is that of revisionism and obliteration of history:

  • For example, Alexander and Hal Puthoff have determined the mystical MJ-12 documents have originated in a real “Continuity of Government” (COG) plan created under President Eisenhower in the early post-World War II days, to prevent nuclear decapitation of the U.S government. The creation of the National Security Act, the National Security Council, and the Central Intelligence Agency emerged almost simultaneously, close to September 18, 1947, and near the MJ-12 date of September 24, 1947. The COG plan also created “hardened secret underground bases” and other “hidden subterranean facilities.”  The barebones description of MJ-12 dovetails with a “dearth of written substantiation” of the COG. UFO enthusiasts doctored such classified documents and weaved a tale of extraterrestrial cover, and the UFO community further took the myth to all-time heights.
  • A local St. Louis UFO Study Group does the same historical “revisionism” recreation, playing with facts and dates, even subtlety using innuendo for added distortion. The Study Group was basically “kicked off” in earliest meetings in the first few months of Winter/Spring 1967 under the tutorship and direction of UFO authority John Schuessler, at the time, an engineer at McDonnell-Douglas Aircraft, and St. Louis A.P.R.O and N.I.C.A.P members (including August Hearst, Arthur Epstein, Ray Nelke, Cliff Palmberg, Richard Phillips, David Schroth, for a few) who sent out press and news releases and had public announcements in local newspapers, including Walt Andrus’ Skylook Magazine.  After a few years, and newer members, the group decided to incorporate under Missouri law in 1971. Much later, narcissistic, and biased members, wishing to bolster their standing in the UFO community and hide these earliest facts, stated that they somehow heralded the creation of the Study Group and that the Study Group was created near their membership times:
  • A likewise situation would be that President Obama or President Clinton, and their “administrations,” claimed that the true beginnings of the Republic and Confederacy of the United States began with them, and not mention the earliest sparks of origin in William Penn, Paul Revere, Thomas Jefferson, Benedict Arnold, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Daniel Dulany, John Page, Richard Henry Lee, William Randolph, Peyton Randolph, Betsy Ross, John Berry, Gilbert Mutier, John Marshall and many others who lit the fires of America. Or, claim that Constantine in 328 A.D, by dedicating the Basilica of St. Peter – or possibly Pope Gregory –  as the first, true and real beginnings of the Christian Church, avoiding, hiding and failing to mention the original twelve disciples including Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Judas, Peter, Thomas some 300 odd years earlier.

The revisionist’s goal is narcissism, ego-satiation, and fantasy: not full and true history (Alexander spends considerable time analyzing Philip Corso’s tale on Roswell as one example of possible historical embellishment).

(Steve Erdmann has prepared a large volume of material on the original creation of the Study Group available for the first time and purchasable at the given below address at the cost of $30.00 a volume)


(“You cannot depend on your eyes when your imagination is out of focus” Mark Twain.)

John Alexander is to be commended for his attempts to bring added insight, with a seasoning of common sense, to the topic of UFOs and PSPs, though one can still wonder about some of his conclusions.  For example, if PSPs have cases of unfriendly, even destructive, happenings (such as physical damage, like radiation burns, animal mutilations), how can people in government keep saying “there is no threat”?  And if UFO stories and PSP phenomena are so awash in mental illness and hoaxing, what would asking the public to get into a reporting frenzy invite (page 270): would we not be inundated with a flood of liars?  Should we not first contend with these blockages before rather than as we venture ahead? It is hoped that Alexander will address these topics further.

“Based on credible witnesses and backed by Physical evidence, I conclude that UFO observations are manifestations of issues that are anfractuous and beyond current comprehension,” concludes Alexander. “The extraterrestrial hypothesis is but one possibility, and probably not the best fit with the facts…we must beware of the Puzzle Paradox that plagues the field with UFOs we are still collecting various disparate pieces…contumacious puzzle.”

Those wishing to contact Steve Erdmann may reach him at


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The Age of Flying Saucers – On the 74th Anniversary: The Real UFO Disclosure


Kenneth Arnold Warned The World …

Flying Saucers Are Here

(Image above courtesy of


The Age of Flying Saucers

On the 74th Anniversary

By Robert D. Morningstar

Kenneth Arnold Interview – 30 years later in 1977 – After 5 years and 15 Million UFO Witness Accounts He Spoke Again

  The Real UFO Disclosure:


AI: The Plan to Invade Humanity

The Movie That Spawned Pentagon’s Alien UFO Disclosures, Predicted Bioweapon, Caused POTUS Reaction

Google, Facebook, Neuralink Sued For Weaponized AI Tech Transfer, Complicity To Commit Genocide In China

Click the Link below to Hear:

An Interview with Cyrus Parsa

AI – The Plan to Invade Humanity Trailer


Fa Lung Gung Leader Li Hong Jr

Warned Humanity

Fa Lung Gung Founder Li Hong Jr

Interview with Li Hongzhi – TIME,8599,2053761,00.html 

TIME: Why does chaos reign now?
Li: Of course there is not just one reason. The biggest cause of society’s change today is that people no longer believe in orthodox religion. They go to church, but they no longer believe in God. They feel free to do anything. The second reason is that since the beginning of this century, aliens have begun to invade the human mind and its ideology and culture.

TIME: Where do they come from?
Li: The aliens come from other planets. The names that I use for these planets are different . Some are from dimensions that human beings have not yet discovered. The key is how they have corrupted mankind. Everyone knows that from the beginning until now, there has never been a development of culture like today. Although it has been several thousand years, it has never been like now.

The aliens have introduced modern machinery like computers and airplanes. They started by teaching mankind about modern science, so people believe more and more science, and spiritually, they are controlled. Everyone thinks that scientists invent on their own when in fact their inspiration is manipulated by the aliens. In terms of culture and spirit, they already control man. Mankind cannot live without science.


Ed Wood Warned Humanity

Wood Predicted Electronic Zombiefication of Humanity

& 5G Technology

Mockingbird Mass Media Ridicule Blocked the Warning


Plan 9 from Outer Space Colorized Version

Full Movie


Kenneth Arnold – June 24th, 1947


Night Vision Photo of An Actual Alien Abduction Photo Taken by US Army Sergeant Who Was Unable to Stop It Read Jacques Vallee’sMessengers of Deception” & Dr. Karla Turner’s “A Masquerade of Angels


Robert Morningstar Warns Humanity

Demonic Aliens Are Here To Harvest Minds, Bodies and Souls


Only Christ Can Save the World”

Call to Him and He Will Come


Pro Christo Rege

The Face of Christ The King

Image Captured by RDM (1974)

“I AM The Light of the World … I AM The Way, The Truth and The Light …
No Man Comes To The Father, But By Me”

In secula seculorum


World without End



The Day After UFO Disclosure

June 25th, 2021

Professional Commentary After US Government’s “Faux UFO Disclosure”

On Fri, Jun 25, 2021 at 8:38 PM <> wrote:

Well here it is, the vaunted congressional UAP Task Force Report, unclassified
version (they purportedly are reporting the good stuff to those morons in
the congress). We are the people that have been begging for an
authorative information release.

It is insulting.

Preliminary Assessment:
Unidentified Aerial Phenomena
25 June 2021

Click to access Prelimary-Assessment-UAP-20210625.pdf

Robert Morningstar <>12:49 AM

Hello, Xtronus,

Thanks for the copy …

We all know that No ONE is better at “B.S.-ing” the public than the Deep State and the US Government, so no one in this group should have been surprised by the ‘Nothingness’ of this report. I got to the 4th paragraph and realized what a farce this is when I read:

Various forms of sensors that register UAP generally operate correctly and capture enough real
data to allow initial assessments, but some UAP may be attributable to sensor anomalies.”

I’ve been cautioning people on radio and emails for weeks, reminding them that this is the same official US government that to this day still claims that Lee harvey oswald shot President Kennedy ALONE and that Oswald fired ONLY  2 bullets, one of which caused 11 wounds in the President and Governor Connally.It is the same “official” government that claims that the Gulf of Tonkin Attack, which mired us in Viet Nam, was real; that Saddam Hussein had WMDs soas to justify the First Gulf War, and that 19 crazy Jihadis brought down the World Trade Center Towers  alone ,then whacked the Pentagon To justify US military invasions in the Middle East to produce 20 years of the perpetual warfare state (filling the coffers of the military industrial complex).

We are dealing with pathological liars, and the ONLY “truth” that will come out of such cabal will be the next smokescreen through the next “Big Lie.”

This UFO Disclosure document is simply another “chit sheet” to requisition billions of dollars (if not trillions) more to confront another false threat to the  “National InSecurity State.”
As I’e said before, quoting  Alfred Lambremont Webre:

“We are the Disclosure.”

Best regards,

Kim Burrafato1:22 AM
to TimxtronusBruceChristenLorienJamesRobert,

If you believe that the vast US national security apparatus doesn’t know more than they’re claiming in this obvious whitewash then you might as well believe in Santa Claus and the Tooth Fairy. Disgusting is the first word that comes to mind. The conclusions of the Robertson panel remain in effect.

On Jun 25, 2021, at 10:13 PM, Tim Ventura <> wrote:

Hey Robert –

The report conclusions are what’s important.

The USG has officially stated:

1. UAPs are real, physical objects.

2. They’re intelligently controlled.

3. They pose a flight safety & national security risk.

4. They appear to utilize advanced technology.

5. We can’t explain them fully until science advances more.

They softened the conclusions to avoid causing a panic, but if you read carefully they seem to be confirming what Elizondo has said.

So, after 70+ years, UFOs are “officially real”


Tim Ventura

Robert Morningstar wrote
1:50 AM 

Hello,  Tim,

Thank you for your prompt reply.

Let me say that I, for one, don’t need the US Government to “tell me” or “confirm” for me that UFOs are real.

My reality is not dependent on US Government approval or authorization.

The one good thing to come of this, I’ll grant you, is that honest people can no longer be ridiculed or accused of being “crazy” or “conspiracy theorists”  fo reporting a UFO sighting, but the fact is that we know no more today than we did the day before yesterday as to the true relationship(s) and treaties between the US, UN,  or World Governments and the alien presence.

LOL .. I also think it’s funny that they changed the lexicon for UFOs to UAPS, which if you know want to know the truth sounds to me like another sick joke on us if we pronounce it like I read it, which I read as:


Best regards,

Robert Morningstar <>2:13 AM
To Tim ventura


We have yet to consider the possibility that China or Russia (or even NWO/Illuminati/Bilderberger global  corporatists) could have made secret deals (sub rosa UN oversight) with the Alien Technocracy to exchange “goods” (humans, territory, and “rangin rights) in return for alien  technology transfers  as has been rumored  was done by the Nazis with aliens or even the USG in the 1940/50s with the Grey Presence.

That’s why I referred to secret treaties or pacts held with the Alien technocracy, as was recommended be done by Robert oppenheimer and Albert Einstein in their June 1947 letter to MJ 12, which specifically cited the  negotiation of a secret treaty with “Them,”. which would grant them “settlement rights” but would keep their presence on Earth hidden from Mankind. 

That is obviously the recommendation that the USG  pursued, leading to a very radical break in policy vis-a-vis secrecy now.  
Why?  👁

The question for me remains:
Why would the Aliens demand a break in the “secrecy clause” at this time (a movement to end UFO secrecy which actually began 13 years ago with the aborted US Navy-sponsored UN General Assembly UFO Disclosure initiative, in which I and several others on this list were deeply involved)?

I think that’s some “Food for Thought”


Clayton Pickering8:33 AM
to Robert M. , 

Thanks, Bob.

NBC News headline stated:  

“UFO Report:  Government can’t explain 143 of 144 mysterious flying objects, blames limited data.”

Though, I have not viewed nor read the news of the report as of yet, what NBC’s remark reminds me of is a very subtle difference between the report today and the University of Colorado’s 1969 report on UFOs, better known as the Condon Committee Report (No committee was involved, btw).

Condon’s summary is what the media read and puffed whereas today’s report appears to be broader in limited scope (Oxymoronic) without the imprimatur deference of one man. Has the stigma been lifted once and for all? 

Correct my limited analysis from the cheap seats, guys.”

Clay Pickering

June 26th, 2021 — 8:54 a.m.

Art Wagner wrote

“I can assure you that, given they exist, these flying saucers are made by no power on this Earth.”

— President Harry S. Truman,
4 April 1950, at a White House press conference.

“It is my thesis that flying saucers are real and that they are space ships from another solar system. I think that they possibly are manned by intelligent observers who are members of a race that may have been investigating our Earth for centuries. I think that they possibly have been sent out to conduct systematic, long-range investigations, first of men, animals, vegetation, and more recently of atomic centers, armaments and centers of armament production.”

– Professor Hermann Oberth

“It now seems quite clear that Earth is not the only inhabited planet. There is evidence that the bulk of the stars in the sky have planetary systems.

Recent research concerning the origin of life on Earth suggests that the physical and chemical processes leading to the origin of life occur rapidly in the early history of the majority of planets within our Milky Way galaxy–perhaps as many as a million–are inhabited by technical civilizations in advance of our own. Interstellar space flight is far beyond our present technical capabilities, but there seems to be no fundamental physical objections to preclude, from our own vantage point, the possibility of its development by other civilizations.”

– Carl Sagan

“I happen to be privileged enough to be in on the fact that we have been visited on this planet, and the UFO phenomenon is real.”

– Edgar Mitchell


Avise La Fin

Consider the End

Motto of the Kennedy Clan

M: Five (5) Cases of Military vs. Alien Encounters: In Regard to “Antarctica UFO Secrets” & Alien Invasion Op (June 12, 2021)

Dedicated to

James V. Forrestal

1st Secretary of Defense

The United States of America


Nazi Haunebu UFOs over Antarctic

When I think of Nazi UFO encounters with Operation Highjump, I don’t imagine it as a Star Wars type of battle scenario using laser weapons on the frozen planet HOD, but more as a series very disruptive operations, which hamstrung the mission, killing confidence and eroding morale, using such tactics as making equipment fail using EMG forces, for example, to burn out electronics, disrupt communications, and make electro-magnetic instrumentation fail.

“Foo Fighters” caused static on radios and affected engine functions in bomber formations during WW2, so that kind of interference, not to mention the psychological impact of having Haunebu type UFO sightings and overflights of the fleet & ground forces, would certainly affect the minds and morale of the mission and create desire to abort any long term mission objectives.

We know that UFOs have caused electronic interference with car ignition, flight instruments and even sabotaged ICBM’s electronic circuitry in their silos at a distance (i.e., Malmstrom AFB in 1966).  

[Note: I see Jim Penniston’s name on this list, and I am sure that he would concur with me on this aspect of human/UFO contact, (like the Rendlesham Forest incident, 1980) i.e. in regard to the psychic & psychological effects of powerful magnetic fields and lights of unusual radiance upon the minds and the morale of mortal men during their encounters with UFOs]

Two such examples, for me, were the loss of the USN aerial reconnaissance aircraft that crashed into an Antarctic mountain, which I could ascribe to navigation instrument and/or altimeter instrument failure (reporting wrong altitude) cause by UFOs, as well, the sudden loss of an engine on Admiral Byrd’s flight to the South Pole. 
Imagine what the powerful EM field surrounding a Haunebu flying disk could do to a magnetic compass and other electronic devices used for ranging and bearing on aircraft, ships or ground vehicles.

This video (linked below) cites 5 examples of such unusual Alien vs. military encounters in which American, British  & Soviet military units came out on the short end in their encounters with Aliens and UFOS.

The first case cited (in Korea 1952) occurred within 5 years time of Operation Highjump and I would consider it typical of military vs. UFO encounters of that epoch.    

The “Tractor Beam” that was used by a UFO to raise Lt. Coyne’s Army National Guard helicopter 2,000 feet in altitude in just a few seconds time on October 18th, 1973, could explain certain mishaps like the loss of Admiral Byrd’s “Snow Crawler” during Operation Highjump.

The Soviet case of the “petrified soldiers,” which I learned of more than 2o years ago when I read the same CIA case file cited, is by far the most disturbing and harrowing of them all.

Tally Ho,”




Admiral Richard E. Byrd’s




Operation Highjump

In Memoriam

James V. Forrestal

1st Secretary of Defense

The United States of America


US Navy Antarctic Development Project Report


Task Force 68

Click to access AntarcticFOIA.pdf


There is a New Ocean in the South

An Interview with UFO/SSP Whistleblower Mark McCandlish on Advanced Engineering Propulsion

An Interview with UFO/SSP Whistleblower Mark McCandlish

on Advanced Energy Propulsion

By Dr. Bruce Cornet, Phd.

Edited by Robert D. Morningstar

Mark McCandlish’s Cut-away of the ARV – Alien Reproduction Vehicle

I heard Mark give a talk at APEC (Alternative Engineering Propulsion Conference) hosted by Tim Ventura. 

I fear that his death at age 68 on 13 April 2021 was premature.

Was he exposing too much?

Mark Mccandlish wrote to me on Messenger on 7 July 2020 about the TicTac that a friend of his saw aloft multiple times “between Redding where I live, here in Northern California, and the state capitol, Sacramento.” 

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is arv-modern-lockheed-disc.jpg
Lockheed Flying Disk by Mark McCandlish

Below, I present our amazing conversation:

Conversation with Mark McCandlish on 7 July 2020, the day of the Roswell crash:


Hi Mark. Do you think we are close to disclosure after the Navy’s Official recognition of UFOs?


Well, the real “hat trick” here is, those “tic tac” UFO’s are “ours”.  So the disclosure process will have to run through several cycles. 

First acknowledgement of the existence of these kinds of “craft,” which indirectly admits to the technology that includes a propulsion system that is capable of what is called “mass-modification” technology. 

You see, mass, in physics is the very thing that produces inertia and G-forces when you turn a corner in your car or even more so in a military aircraft.   I have personally experienced 9.3 G’s in the F-16  “Fighting Falcon”.

I blacked out. 

F-16 Fighting Falcon in Steep Climb by Mark McCandlish

The experienced Arizona Air National Guard Pilot was unfazed by the experience. If you can “modify the mass” of an aircraft– (in other words) make it somewhat less (massive), it means that the craft and its pilot or crew can withstand much higher turn rates without experiencing something in excess of 9 G’s. 

Some trained observers have stated that these Tic Tac UFO’s made turns that would produce G-forces in excess of 22 G’s.  (Deadly– but not so if you can modify the mass and make it far less.) 

The second phase of UFO Disclosure is admitting that we have the technology, but this in turn implies very strongly that we back-engineered it from UFO’s that crashed many decades ago.  I’ve seen evidence that we had possession and an understanding of such alien technology since at least the mid-1960’s (all very highly classified of course).

And the third phase of UFO/SSP (Secret Space Program) Disclosure would be that, well, yes- we did back engineer the technology from UFO crash recoveries, and yes, there is alien life “out there” in the cosmos, and it has been coming to Earth for many centuries– perhaps millennia.  And some of it isn’t friendly.

Mark continued:

You may wonder how I know this. 

Well, as it happens, I have a good friend who drives a semi-truck between Redding where I live, here in Northern California, and the state capitol, Sacramento.  When he is coming back north in the wee hours of the morning, he frequently encounters craft that look just like the renditions of the Tic Tac UFO’s

This typically occurs when he is around the town of Williams (on Interstate 5), and that lies maybe fifteen miles due west of Beale AFB, where the SR-71 Blackbird used to be kept and launched on surveillance missions over the former Soviet Union, Red China, and North Korea.  In fact my buddy, had an encounter with one passing directly over the freeway in front of his truck at about 3:30 AM (as I was talking on the phone with him).

ARV Flight Controls by Mark McCandlish


Thank you, Mark, for such a detailed explanation. The term “Alliance” is used today to refer to those supporting the Space Force. Could this Alliance be between humans and non-humans, who are building ARVs for both military and alien use? They provide technology. We manufacture replacement vehicles.  They live below ground. We live above ground.


There is no question that there are many underground facilities, and in all likelihood connected by a vast, sophisticated tunnel system.  I have not seen any direct evidence of a Human-Alien alliance, or that we are building hardware for an off-world customer.  I did have a personal friend and former Green Beret, who began to open up about what he knew and participated in, starting in the mid-to-late 1970’s after his involvement in the Viet Nam War. 

He claimed that back in the 1970’s the U.S. military had figured out how to move through time and space; a kind of time-space teleportation system.  They could go just about anywhere or any time you can imagine.  They looked far into the future (from that time) and saw the Earth as a burned out cinder.  Lifeless.  Then they backed up year by year until they found the cause.  An alien armada showed up and began extinguishing all life and strip-mining the Earth of its resources.  We had nothing (no weapons) that could pose a defense against their superior technology.  So they mounted a program (Operation Pegasus) where the participants traveled back in time to Mars 65 million years ago– back when that planet had a molten core, a magnetic field and an atmosphere, along with a lush, Jurassic Park-like ecosystem. 

The purpose was to begin a weapons development program, that would have literally millions of years and thousands of Human generations to create a future defense for Earth.  Then, if and when breakthrough technology was ready for deployment, brought back up through time (yes, “back to the future”) to prepare for the defense of Earth. 

A Faux 3-D Joint Venture:
Flying Wing by Mark Mark McCandlish

Left Wing Tip & Screen Extension by Robert D. Morningstar

This program was and is largely responsible for the majority of UFO sightings here in the present time.  You may have noticed that even the UFO’s have appeared to improve in their performance and capabilities over the past sixty years.    That sounds like the by-product of a Human program.  You wouldn’t see that kind of thing coming from a civilization thousands or perhaps millions of years more advanced than us. 

Mark MCCandlish Spoke to the Alternative Engineering Propulsion Conference on November 21st, 2020
Editor”s Note: Ironically, Posted to YouTube on November 22nd 2020

In the midst of all this, the military forgot one thing:  that the Humans that went back millions of years to develop weapons would themselves evolve over time– to become a more intelligent, spiritual, and psychically-capable being.  Telepathy, telekinesis, healing injuries on others– the list goes on and on.  In the end, it may be that the Human mind itself, in its most advanced form, is the greatest weapon we could ever hope for.

Aurora Concept Vehicle by Mark McCandlish


So you believe that non-humans are not working with humans?

What about MILABs (Military-Industrial Laboratories)?

Yet you admit that we are being visited by ETs. I agree that significant progress has occurred with reverse engineering of alien crashed craft. Stories coming out of people who allegedly worked at Area 51 and S4 are either true or part of the coverup program to undercut public fear of an alien presence on Earth.

In other words, nothing here to report. All UFO sightings are military craft, just classified above top secret. Then comes the questions of abductions and telepathy. Gurdjieff says that there are multiple dimensions and worlds that overlap in part, just enough to explain ghosts and parallel world encounters.

Have you ever had missing time?


I didn’t say that.  What I said was: I don’t believe that Humans are building advanced technology craft for off-world entities.  There’s a difference. 

Sure, they might be working “together” on a variety of programs, everything from biological and ecosystem problems to advanced technology.  Military abductions are very real.  I have friends who have experienced them. I’ve been with a contactee during an alien abduction in December 1989, and experienced an hour of missing time.  She was shown future events, including, the World Trade Center attack on 9-11-2001, the earthquake that devastated Banda Aceh, Indonesia (9.0 Richter) the earthquake that caused the great nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan on March 11, 2011. 

And she saw “THE” major quake on the San Andreas Fault in California which has yet to happen.  The aliens told her they would perform a “mass landing” near Mojave, California after that event.  

My Special Ops friends know about the teams that perform these operations and the hand-held aerosol can they use to knock out a target instantly.  Generically, it is called “The Angel of Death in a Can” or known by its chemical formula: Tryptomethylchloride. 

It instantly raises Melatonin production in the body by 85%, essentially putting you to sleep.  Too much will kill you.  It has a chemical half-life in the body of less than five minutes, beyond which it is undetectable by pathological exam. 

I never said ALL UFO reports are highly classified craft.  I said a large portion of these sightings are; (about 85% are human built and operated).  The other 15% are off-world or alternate dimensional entities. 

Telepathy is real.  Some of those advanced humans from the Mars program “Pegasus” are fully capable of this, have brought their genetic traits back up through time and have had children in the present who manifest some of these abilities.  I have met a few of them. 

ARV & Hovercraft by Mark McCandlish

Telepathy, healing (or killing) at a distance, telekinesis.  A friend of mine was tasked with killing the last leader of North Korea, Kim Jong Il by stopping his heart.  He could do a consciousness insertion evaluate a person’s health status read their thoughts and help or harm as directed.  He could not understand Jong Il’s thoughts, because they were in the man’s native language.  Then they directed him to have a heart attack.  Weeks later, the military infected my friend with genetically modified, highly virulent strain of MRSA, and he was dead three months later.  That’s how they repay their assassins.  I’ve experienced ghosts, and parallel world encounters, and know of a building that has a time bridge portal running through it back to the 1600’s.  The “ghosts” seen there are all in colonial-era dress, and seem genuinely as frightened as the present-day residents who witness them. 

On one occasion, the resident came home on his birthday, wondering why he had not heard from any from any of his friends.  He entered the kitchen, put down his groceries to see his living room “…full of men and women in colonial dress, dancing to the music of a string quartet.  He recognized NO ONE. 

When he went to the living room doorway, and said, “Who ARE all of you people, and what are you doing in my home?”  The crowd turned to gaze upon him with a look of terror, then vanished!  And that wasn’t the only incident of that type.


Thank you for clarifying your statements. Much appreciated. I have a friend in Miami who is one of those ETs in a human biosuit. Would you like to hear first hand information from the alien side? I can put you in touch with her. I know she would be fascinated with your story.

Can I share our conversation with her?


Certainly.  But let me ask you:  How do you know that her claim is true?

TR-3 By Mark McCandlish


She is either certifiably nuts, or the information, names of species, names of planets, names of ET contacts, and hundreds of drawings, as well as her education and history with the nuclear industry (power plants) supports her claims of government surveillance.  There is an uncanny correlation with what other ET contacts and insiders have disclosed, but with a level of personal detail only someone who flies with her ET handlers almost weekly at night could know.

As an observer, her story is amazing. George Filer recommended her to me. She claims to be the only one of her kind, and was put on Earth as a portal guard at her home in Miami, where with an exotic tropical garden and crystal layout she says she is a “Soldier Sentry.”


I’d rather not get involved with any of that. By the way, I have to get back to work … Perhaps we can continue at another time.


O.K. Thanks … Let’s do that.”

End of Conversation

Bruce Cornet, Phd.

July 7, 2020 on the day of the Roswell UAP crash, 73 years later.

Mark McCandlsih & The ARV

In Memoriam

Mark McCandlish

Editor’s Note:

Mark McCandlish died on April 13th, 2021 in his home on Redding, CA of a shotgun blast to the head.

Shasta County Coroner’s official report cites his death as a “Suicide” from self-inflicted gunshot wound.

Mark McCandlish spoke to his friend, Rick Price, late that day (April 13th) and Mark told him that he was going to rest and would call him later. Mark also spoke to his girlfriend later and told her that he would speak to her when he went to work at her animal shelter. When Mark did not show up for work and he failed to call her, Mark’s girlfriend, who had a key to his home, went there to look for him, and found his body, dead from a gunhot wound to his head.

A colleague of Mark McCandlish, a member of a UFO/SSP Disclosure group with which Mark McCandlish was associated, wrote on May 10th, 2021:

“Regarding Mark McClandlish suicide with shotgun blast to his head.  He was going to testify for Senate UFO/UAP meeting in June.   His testimony would have destroyed the “we haven’t made much progress” narrative. Also the one who showed the Tic Tac was actually USAF SSP drone … That would also destroy that narrative, came out and reversed and said he made it up.  Mark probably didn’t go along.  It’s an agenda.  It’s complicated for sure.”


Robert D. Morningstar, Editor/Publisher of The UFO Spotlight, a friend and colleague of Mark McCandlish since the June 2014 Secret Space program – Breakaway Civiliation Conference that was held in San Francisco, and Rick Price, a close friend (for more than 20 years) who was one of the last people to speak to Mark McCandlish find that conclusion dubious, doubt the “official story,” and reject that conclusion.

Finally, it has been reported by one official that “several Federal agencies are investigationg the death of Mark McCandlish.’ If Mark’s death was, in fact, just a “suicide,” the editor asks:

Why should further investigations by multiple agencies of the US government be necessary?

I reject the ‘official story.”

Robert D. Morningstar

May 10th, 2021

New York City


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The Unnatural Universe!

They came – They saw – They conquered! 

The Psychrophiles Wraith_attack

The Psychrophiles Are Coming!


Steve Erdmann

Part I

Copyright, C, Steve Erdmann, 2013
This article was previously published in The UFO Digest –  May 1 through May 7, 2013.
It is printed here with permission.

Reviewers and journalists can quote small portions as long as they give full credits to the original article.

Asimlar article can be seen at

Marshall Karlfeldt explores the work of the late Zecharia Sitchin from The Earth Chronicles (Sitchin’s meticulous translations of thousands of Sumerian cuneiform tablets concerning the history of the earliest human civilization).  The tablets contain The Epic of Enuma Elish (The Story of Creation) and The Epic of Gilgamesh, as explained through the works of Sitchen’s deciphers, a civilization some 450,000 years ago from a far distant world called Nibiru.  

(Adam, The Missing Link: The New History of Mankind’s Creation, Marshall Karlfeld, Trafford Publishers, 1663 Liberty Drive, Bloomington, In. 47403, CustomerSupport@trafford, 1-888-232-444, 812-339-6000,, 2009, 66 pages, $38.95.)

Book Cover


The book contains extremely handsome and elaborate photographs, professionally exquisite graphic charts, illustrations that are well worth the cost: outlining the arrival and rise of an alleged civilization called the Anunnaki; Gilgamesh, the king of Urek; Ekidu, a cloned humanoid of the Anunnaki; Lord Enki, the chief genetic engineer; and Gilgamesh’s mother as an Anunnaki Divine Princess; Gilgamesh’s father was human.

The 6th tablet tells about Princess Ishtar who lusts after Gilgamesh but is rejected by him. Furious, Ishtar travels from an orbiting mothership to Urek, stealing the “Bull of Heaven” from Leader Anu, and uses the laser-device to blast the streets of Uruk killing hundreds of people.  Gilgamesh and Enkidu destroy “The Bull” as Ishtar retreats.


Cylinder seal VA/243 is about 4,500 years old.  The story on the cylinder tells of Anunnaki leaders: the Commander Enlil and Genetic Engineer Enki are shown experimenting with animals, says Klarfeld.

The same diagrams show the alleged solar system with 10 planets; Nibiru is supposedly the 10th planet.


Klarfeld, as also so many other people, believes that a double entendre’ existed in the beliefs and statements of scientist Carl Sagan; Sagan always intended his words provoke additional thoughts on controversial topics, says Klarfeld.  In Sagan’s 1985 book Contact, his photograph held behind him a “sentient belief” in Sumerian stories of the Anunnaki.  Sagan once named a spaceship as Gilgamesh. It was Sagan that said: ‘Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known.”  Klarfeld adds: “I suspect that Dr. Sagan was a believer who wanted to signal his beliefs, without overtly confronting the scientific community.”


Klarfeld summarizes that The Enuma Elish Epic predated the Hebrew Book of Genesis, and is the bases for the Genesis creation account.  It is the original creation story that was transmitted orally from the Anunnaki. The Epic came to rest eventually in the form of seven cuneiform tablets.

(Why the Anunnaki didn’t use their advanced knowledge and technology to transmit history, as such, in a superior and very solidified means other than ‘oral’ and primitive ‘tablets’ is a curiously tantalizing question.)


Genesis spoke of seven days of creation. There were “seven” tablets relaying the Sumerian tale, said Sitchin. In Genesis, God saw on the 7th day that creation is good, and then He rested; in the Sumerian accounts, the ‘god’ created in the length of ‘six tablets,’ but on the last and 7th tablet, ‘god’ heralded and examined his creation. In the Sumerian seven tablets, creation was portrayed. In Genesis, God created and praised His creation in ‘seven’ days.

The Psychrophiles Zacharia-Sitchin
Zecharia Sitchin, Supporter of Planet Nibiru and of the Anunnaki


The Enuma Elish tale, according to the late Zacharia Sitchin, named the planets of the solar system in the form of ‘gods’: Sun, Moon, nine planets, and Nibiru as the 10th planet. Starting from the Sun, they are Apsu (which is the Sun), Mummu, Lahamu, Tiamat (the Earth), Kishar, Arislar, Anu, Ea (Neptune). Apparently, Pluto is disowned and disenfranchised by Anunnaki and present-day scientists. Translating the personified conversations in the tale, the solar system was very mobile, causing all kinds of havoc and destruction until the sun stabilized their movements.

The Psychrophiles towerofbabel
Tower of Babel built to Symbolize Seven Stellar gods 

Earth’s moon is called Kingu, and the moon of Nibiru is called “Northwind.” When Nibiru came close to Earth in its 3,600-year orbit around the sun, ‘Northwind’ careened into the Earth about 225-million-years ago, fragmenting Pangea into continents, causing new orbits for Tiamat (Earth) and Nibiru. The asteroid belt was referred to as the Hammered Bracelet.


If Sitchin was correct, the inhabitants of Nibiru evolved on a planet that had no ‘goldilocks’ zone from a central sun precisely at the adequate distance for life as we know it. That meant that Nibiruites must have had a very peculiar evolution.

Has there ever been precedence in the UFO lore of beings evolving on a “cold planet”? Yes, there have been a few, one in particular: the stories of the late Richard Sharpe Shaver and the late Raymond Arthur Palmer.

The Psychrophiles Shaver and Palmer download
Richard Sharpe Shaver and publisher Ray A. Palmer


Through a period of about 1943 to 1977 the publisher of Amazing Stories Magazine, Ray A. Palmer (affectionately referred to as RAP), promulgated accounts of Richard Shaver’s journey into a Hidden World. Shaver, somewhat of a bohemian character who grew up with science-fiction and a dabbling of science, had also, for the most part, been an adventurer from occupation to occupation, talent to talent, territory to territory. Shaver also had an enlarged imagination as he discovered one day while working as a welder in a Detroit auto factory: voices were coming from his welding equipment; the voices were describing obscene depictions, and generally detailing outlandish events of another reality.

Right away, many would be quick to say that Shaver was probably schizophrenic or somehow mentally ill, but Palmer was swift to point out to Shaver’s detractors that much more was happening to Shaver.  Palmer based that opinion on scientific verification of Shaver’s claims. There also existed modern theories on exactly what the brain perceives amidst the latest traditions of quantum physics.

(One is reminded of the movie scene in A Beautiful Mind where schizophrenic John Nash, played by Richard Crowe, was observing the reflections of glass and crystal and seeing great mathematical possibilities: to quote the Halexandria Foundation: “On the one hand, there is the supposition that all of reality is an illusion. As discussed in Mass, the universe is nothing more than a figment of our prolific imaginations, a phantasm. That may be, but on a more, still-in-the-midst-of-this-life’s-drama level, we can ask about the degree to which we may be imagining — and/or creating — our own reality.” [Creating Your Perfect Reality])

The Psychrophiles abeautifulmind
In the Movie, A Beautiful Mind, John Nash (Actor Richard Crowe) Contemplates Unknown Mathematical Possibilities in Crystal Glass and a Tie.

The Psychrophiles Art MDJackson_Shaver_5-200x300

David Darling, an astronomer, and graduate of Sheffield and Manchester Universities in England, spoke of ancient and current practitioners to ‘brain tapping,’ as one example, that by-passes the brain as a modulator to confronting cosmic consciousness. Darling also spoke of Clive Wearing’s Korsakoff Disease (Korsakoff had to reconstruct reality and memory every few seconds):  “Cases such as these speak of more than just the fragile and constructed nature of self. They raise serious questions about the nature of time,” said Darling, “and the delicate connection between psychological time and physical reality. Could it be that time, likewise, is nothing more than a product of the way we think.”  (Soul Search, Villard Books, Random House, New York, 1995, p. 117.)


Darling and other scientists pointed to altered states of consciousness where perception exceeded normal restraints. The sanctimonious judgments of such people, others would say, were probably premature if not also suspect and neurotic.


Palmer received a rather sketchy manuscript at his office at Amazing Stories Magazine telling of a vast underground civilization of demented creatures left on earth thousands of years ago by an Elder Race; this race possesses super-technology from their forefathers, who escaped earthly contamination by heading back into space.

The Psychrophiles nasa-ready-to-launch-ufo-flying-saucer-shaped-low-density-supersonic-decelerator-ldsd-rocket
Artist’s rendering of the proposed Mars Transfer Vehicle that would use NTR – Nuclear Thermic Rocket -Propulsion 


The beings that were left behind on earth are a composite of ‘The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly,’ to use a movie metaphor: abandero or dero, and the not-so-bad, sometimes good, tero. Dero kept themselves “Dosed-up,” so-to-speak, through their machines which allowed them to continue long but torturous lives of radiation poisoning from the sun.

The Tero were a little more fortunate, knew the danger of the destructive “de” from the Sun, as well as the mechanics of surviving in such a surrealistic world. Some Tero actually waged war against the Dero who had the advantage of combat with their Ben-ray, Stim-ray, Telesolidography, and Telepathic-Augmentor.

The Psychrophiles Amazing tumblr_nkgnqtOQ8P1r0t5x7o1_540

And then, there are the “surface dwellers”: we humans, who have to deal with apparitions, ghosts, poltergeists, surface-type diseases and other mysterious calamities.


Out of such a rich but chaotic history grew the legends of other legends; tales of other tales; Atlantis, Lemuria, Mu, The Oahspe Bible, Hades (Hell), and hundreds of other sagas.

The Psychrophiles AmazingStories_1947
The Hidden Underworld

Palmer reconstructed Shaver’s story-line for Amazing Stories and presented the manuscripts in a serious vain and found himself avalanched by responses from thousands of readers with a chorus of “Real! This is really happening!”  Most were certifiably sane. Carl Sagan said and (quoted by Elz Cuya) “….renamed the scientific method, ‘the baloney detection kit.’  He admitted that science at times had been wrong.”


If Shaver was insane, he also appeared correct, exampled by one such claim that the Elder Race lived on “dark, cold worlds,” away from deadly effects of space and sun radiation (exd) which carries “de, der, dir or d” ash, as compared to good matter – integrative energy – te, ter or t.

Like Zacharia Sitchin (1976), Emanuel Velikovsky (1950), Harold Jeffreys (1924), Shaver’s stories also told of cosmic catastrophe: Planets were dislodged, orbits realigned, and crash events occurred. The Elder Race feared none of this on their ‘dark planet’ of the Nortonean Race.



Princess Vanic and other “Elder Gods,” as recorded in Shaver’s I Remember Lemuria (1948), lived on the ‘sunless Nor’: they were “Nortons” who could thrive in ‘dark space’; they were ‘Titans,’ ‘Atlans,’ and ‘Nor-tons.’ They did avoid the “black death” from the “masses of (the) poisonous particles” from any sun or star (also called ‘dis’ or ‘de’). Such poison eventually causes ‘radioactive disease’ known as ‘‘age.’’ 

Nortons were protected by a “carbon shell” canopy. Unfortunately, our sun, Sol, captured Nor and over many eons, the “shell” burned away about 30,000 years ago, allowing the destructive “de, der, dir or d” to enter the surface and cause havoc, disease, and aging. A residual “exd,” or ash, pushed back causing ‘gravity’ (A lot of Shaver’s ‘formulas’, said Palmer, have been found to be eventually true).

Not only was the capture of the “cold planet” a major epiphany-event but there were cataclysmic events and collisions of celestial bodies through the solar system.

This resulted in various legends.


As mentioned, some legends appeared to be copies or remnant stories of other legends: issue tales of Atlantis, Lemuria, Mu, and Shaver’s strange “Mantong” language and alphabet where each letter denoted meaning: one word could seemingly have been a complete sentence or more.

When the “gods” left earth, they also abandoned superior machinery and diseased monsters that took “surface dwellers” into their Realm as “shanghaied slaves.”

Shaver died in November 1975 (same month I was confronted with the Kafkaesque world of the multi-billion-dollar Divorce Industry, Scam, and Racket). Ray Palmer died in August 1977, just two years after his dear friend Richard Shaver.


Donald Wesley Patten referred to such a mysterious celestial body moving tremulously through our solar system as “the Visitor” (The Biblical Flood and the Ice Epoch, Pacific Meridan Publishing Company, 1966, p. 139).  As a professional Geographer, M.A., Patten came to believe that a number of cosmic and planetary events disturbed the evolution of earth and its inhabitants. Rather than a “carbon shell,” Patten believed Earth had a “water canopy” (evidenced by a residual Van Allen Belt around the planet). The “canopy” was destroyed by a combination of events in the solar system. This “canopy” protected the earth from radiation and space debris (referred to in the Book of Genesis in the Scriptures as “the waters above”), allowing a rather deterioration-free world. The intimate details were in Patten’s book and related works of Immanuel Velikovsky and Jim Wentworth’s Giants in the Earth; but all theories and legends held questionable “gaps” and begged multiple queries as yet unanswered or challenged.


Klarfeld answers numerous questions; I cannot say he will answer questions to everyone’s satisfaction. He examines Sumerian and ancient archeology through four categories: S.I.T – or – Stored Information Text (cuneiform tablets), S.I.Ts – or – Stored Information Tablets (cuneiform tablets), S.I.D – or – Stored Information Device (cylinder seals), S.I.Sc – or – Stored Information Sculpture (Ishtar statue, etc.), and S.I.S.t – or – Stored Information Structure (pyramids).


The pyramids certainly seemed mysterious enough to be classified as possibly an actual alien “structure”: 2.3 million bricks in the Giza pyramid with a satellite view of being only two inches off at the apex.  This is a tolerance of 1/1,000,000 of an inch.

But the question seemed affordable to ask: why did the Sumerians, who consorted with the Anunnaki beings and leaders, not “demand,” or, at least, query their Creators about obtaining or inventing their super-technology? They could have insisted or campaigned as so that the Anunnaki put their laser, radio, and other advanced machinery at their disposal. Conversely, the Anunnaki could have circumnavigated cuneiform tablets and cylinder-seals and ‘had given’ the Eridue superior machines.


Why is there only history of the Anunnaki in the Mesopotamian civilization? Or, did the “Nephilim” do a very good job of keeping their existence of technology completely out of the hands of the Enkidu? Why allow ‘any’ technological transfer?

(Tantalizing questions are further posed in Part II of the curiosities of the Elder Gods and the reality of the planet Niberu.)

The Psychrophiles Are Coming!

Part II


Klarfeld offers the mysteries of Stonehenge as another bit of evidence of ancient super-civilizations. Klarfeld says the stones were erected on a prior 285-foot-diameter circle of 56 chalk holes. The Audrey Circle, say its defenders, is an early eclipse-computer with precise knowledge of celestial mechanics. Stonehenge’s earliest portion dates approximately 2950-2900 BCE, Middle Neolithic, and having enormous knowledge about the earth’s relation to celestial bodies, enabled as S.I.D and S.I.S.t devices.


The Uruk, Nipper, Kishilarsa, Ur, Eridu, and Anunnaki peoples left many clues: stones, says Klarfield, that can only have been chiseled and moved by an advanced technology. One stone weighs over 1,200 tons; the St. Louis Gateway Arch weighs 900 tons. Some megalith stones are found raised 36 feet above the ground and end to end.


The pyramid of Giza (and several other pyramids) still defied complete explanation by its critics of an S.I.S.t.  Pyramid fascinations included: Its engineers knew of the proportions of “pi” and the Golden Mean, Pythagorean Triangles, thousands of years before Pythagoras lived. Passageways, said defenders, could not be produced with copper or bronze tools; the builders also knew the precise spherical shape and size of the Earth, Venus, Mars, and Mercury and star positions.

The Psychrophiles 111128_GR_pyramidFW.jpg.CROP.original-original
The Pyramids as a Grand Communication Tool


Sitchin’s legends told of the messenger Galzu, instructed by the Creator of All, telling the Anunnaki to save humanity and advance human civilization.  In “The Lost Book of Enki,” Enki and Enlil debated using “Weapons of Terror”: atomic-tipped missiles stored on earth and used in war: issue Sodom and Gomorrah, the “evil wind” (radiation fallout) which destroyed the Sumerian alien-hybrids. The Halexandria Foundation stated: “Unfortunately, Lot’s wife looked behind her, and was turned into a pillar of salt for her trouble. [6/22/06 – One reader, Paul Cilwa, had noted that ‘In Hebrew, the word used for ‘salt’ also means ‘vapor.’ Lot’s wife wasn’t turned to salt. She was vaporized. When Abraham got wind of the event, ‘he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and toward all the land of the plain, and beheld, and, lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace.’ (Genesis 19:28).]”

The Psychrophiles lots-wife-1
The Vaporization of Lot’s Wife

The Foundation continued: “The aftermath was so terrifying that Lot and his daughters fled to a cave, where the natural assumption was that the human race was doomed (i.e. no men to beget children). The daughters then took the next step of lying with their father, conceived, and ultimately bore sons.

“Notice how all of the ingredients in the Biblical story account for the destruction of the cities by a nuclear blast.”


Possible clues also further substantiated the atomic war. Mark Hempsell of Bristol University, based on the cuneiform symbols in Planisphere tablets of a Sumerian astronomer, postulated a large asteroid passed over the area scorching 386,000 square miles and sending out debris and shock waves. The text spoke of:  “a white stone bowl being vigorously swept along.”

The cities, also known as Bab edh Dhra and Numeira, showed signs of fire from above as well as a “burn layer” at Numeira. “To this day, unnatural levels of radioactivity are found in the water of springs around the southernmost edges of the Dead Sea. One study confirmed that this radioactivity was sufficiently high to ‘induce sterility and allied afflictions in any animals and humans that absorbed it over a number of years. Further evidence of an explosion is being revealed by the falling level of the Dead Sea, which has in recent years dropped from 1,280 feet to 1,340 feet below sea level.’”
The Psychrophiles sodomslide2
The City of Bab Edh Dhra – was it destroyed by an Atomic Blast?


“The isolation of the fossil water body give it characteristic chemical and radioactive properties, including low values of radioactive tritium and radium and the presence of bivalent iron, which indicates a lack of oxygen. One study found that radioactive isotopes had been introduced into the surface layers and mixed throughout the water column before its stratification.”

“A strong correlation between radium activity and salinity was also evident in groundwater along the rift valley between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, as well as in groundwater from the Judea Group rocks in the Negev. The general rule is that in freshwater conditions, most of the radium remains in the aquifer rocks, while in saline conditions the radium escapes from the rocks and has high concentrations in groundwater. Other studies have established that groundwater with no oxygen also is typically enriched in radium.”


Based on evidence found at Harappa, could this not be the case at Sodom and Gomorrah as well?

“The levels of radiation registered so high on investigators’ gauges that the Indian government cordoned off the region. Scientists then apparently unearthed an ancient city where they found evidence of an atomic blast dating back thousands of years: from 8,000 to 12,000 years.”

The Psychrophiles mohenjo skeletons
Some were laid out as if in an Aerial Blast 


Some artifacts are disputed, some disproven, some appeared to be hoaxes—-such as the Crystal Skulls. All in all, the accuracy of the Sumerian account boiled down to whether an inhabited planet came around our Sun from deep space.

Klarfeld says that legends title this mysterious Planet X as Marduk, The Winged Globe, Treta, Yuga, The Celestial Disk, and Nemesis.

Photos Extra Planet X 383_planet_9_art_1_1400
Artist Conception of Planet X


Could molecular life as we know it have existed on “dark planets” so far from radiant heat or warmth?

Life on planets in our solar system exists because of ideal or quasi-ideal “goldilocks” positions from a heat source in the universe that “sets the stage.” Mars probes and discoveries on Europa, the fourth-largest moon of Jupiter (which has a possible 50-mile-ocean-breeding-ground) gave wonder about the tenacity of life. Internal heat from volcanism and other factors inspired us to new and fresh viewpoints.


Rare and bizarrely exotic life existed and evolved under the strenuously cantankerous and perhaps perilous conditions. Science seemed to indicate that life “yearns” to exist, even in hostilely macabre environments. In Oymyakon in the northern hemisphere, birds in mid-flight froze because the temperatures are so cold.  The Hot Spring of Sakha (“non-freezing water”) supported life in temperatures of -60-degree centigrade to -71.2-degree centigrade. Vostok, about 1,300 km from the South Pole has a low temperature of -128.6-degrees-farhenheit (and winds up to 60 mph), yet life was found. During Polar Night, in low oxygen at an 11,312-foot altitude, life abounded.

The Psychrophiles Bugs bugs_2a
Permafrost Life- Coldest Living Organisms – Cryptoendoliths

.Scientists pointed to life in Chile’s cruelly dry Atacama Desert, the 10,000-foot-thick ice plateaus in Greenland, the 750-degree-fahrenheit hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, and mitochondria in a microscopic “harsh world.”

The Psychrophiles Ocean blastomussa-coral-fluorescent-vojce-shutterstock_1024
Organisms Found in Deepest Part of  Ocean 


Antarctica flourished with bacteria living because of ‘cold shock proteins,’ said Dr. William P. McGiven, and proteins carrying metabolic enzymes that allow ‘ice re-crystallization inhibition (RI) activity.’
The Psychrophies archaeon 1-s2.0-S0005272814000917-gr1

McGiven found that proteolytic cleavage in a creature called hydrogenophilus or chemolithoautotrophy can change the physical structure of the ice around them through “stress chaperones or stress proteins.”


Psychrophilic organisms were found at -112-degrees-F; they were “psychrotolerant”: able to survive in either cold or warm temperatures. Archaea creatures were thermophiles that, contrarily, were ‘‘heat-loving,” demonstrating the wide-range of spectacular life.

Toxic cyanobacteria secreted “anti-freeze chemicals,” exopolymers, mucus that allowed insulation; yeast and nematode worms utilized trehalose sugar; and in the Antarctic Taylor Dry Valley, organisms flourished in calcium chloride in the Ross Ice Shelf.
The Psychrophiles Antarctica Meduza-Atolla
Diplulmaris Antarctica

Carol Cleland and Microbiologist Sheely Copley of NASA’S Astrobiology Institute spoke of a “shadow biosphere” wherein all kinds of “weird life” intersect and thrive on earth, some in symbiotic relationships, but all suspended in diversified and “staggeringly” cooperative and competitively strange and harsh life.

The Psychrophiles Tough DSC-CR0916_08
Tardigrades Survived Cold Outer Space

We must consider: what about life on distant worlds?


One can only have speculated that in billions of years in crossing space to, briefly (several hundred years out of thousands), pass a sun in its orbit, as to what type of life could evolve on a “dark planet.” Obviously, life would be unique, to say the least, for it would not depend on the traditional “goldilocks” mechanisms we’re usually assumed.

The Psychrophiles akhenaten-depiction_g5ad
Pharaoh Akhenaten may have had Extraterrestrial Heritage 

Gravity would be quite different, due to the individual planetary terrain. There would not be the Sun’s “constant” harmful radiation; perhaps such a planet might itself be an “organism” enveloped in some ‘cloud’ or ‘shell’ causing surface evolutionary mechanisms. Such ‘shields’ may become threatened by eventual catastrophe causing the inhabitants to search out artificial survival morphing.

One could envision large, almost “pupil-less” eyes to allow as much light in as possible; thin, elongated features due to odd gravity strains, and inner organs much reported like the artist conceptions in the alleged, famed “humanoid grey creatures” of 1947, Roswell, New Mexico, UFO crash.


ThePsychrophiles Humanoid 200px-Alienigena
Humanoid depicted at Roswell, New Mexico, 1947

According to Sitchenites, the Anunnaki created Enkidu-type hybrids to mine gold from the bowels of the earth because Anunnaki had a medical and ecological need for it.   Sitchenites speculated: gold dust or salts have anti-inflammatory uses or the ability to reduce arthritic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and tuberculosis. Gold, also, has a use in radioisotopes and electrical conductivity.

Obviously, as a basis for our legends, the Anunnaki may have had a “broken” ozone layer or damage to their “cloud-shield.” Gold, as various solid and dust forms, may have been used as an aid or protectant (we see our ‘modern chem-trails’ being sprayed by humans today).


Researchers speculated about gold’s anti-cancer properties when induced as nanoparticles to fight “cellular deformations.” It may fix strings of DNA and regulate the hormonal functions of the human endocrine system.

Gold had electrical aspects as a “superconductor.” Metallurgy and chemistry were still progressing into the monoatomic reality of elements. Theorists talked of arranging the atoms into singular atoms causing very little deletion of energy input, as a superconductor, and enhancing the body brain-power and memory, even acting as a time-machine in some ‘monatomic optimum.’

The Psychrophiles Gold xg5416e38a
The Anunnaki had a Medicinal Use for Gold

Metallurgy and chemistry were still progressing into the reality of the elements.


Sadly, major consensuses of scientists attacked such claims by Sitchen and similar “catastrophists”:

Farley V. Ferrante, SMU Physics Department, August 7, 2012:

“Sitchen’s scientifically liberating work is filled with poor scholarship, poor translations, and poor science.”

The Seal VA/243 was later described, by Roger Westcott, professor emeritus of Anthropology and Linguistics at Drew University, as merely ‘stars.’ Michael S. Heiser, M.A and Ph.D. in Hebrew Bible and Ancient Semitic languages at the University of Wisconsin lambasted Sitchin’s translations of the texts as grossly misleading and inadequate.

Astronomers of similar style and rank, said Ferrante, have failed to spot Nibiru in its approach into our domain. Such critics pointed out that Akkadian and Sumerian texts were, supposedly, actually talking about Jupiter as the god Marduk (Nibiru). They “frowned” on the idea of a planet “frozen solid” being capable of supporting life; that out of a 3,600-year-orbit, only 153-years would be in sunlight and supposedly life-supporting: if, if, if……… 


Despite these threads of contention, facing a magnanimous universe, final answers were hidden in the midst of infinite questions; confluence guarded the darkest secrets of the great beyond. Only in the never-ending search, will we finally know if Sitchin, Patten, Velikovsky, Shaver, Palmer, John Keel, and others in this matrix of inquiry, will be found correct: sicitor ad astra (“Thus one goes to the stars”, Aeneid, Virgil).

Steve Erdmann can be reached at; or,;
You can friend him at –  Facebook,
or, visit the Dissenter/Disinter Group at –!/groups/171577496293504/.
His Facebook email is
You can also visit his articles at the following: – TheDissenter,,,,
Alternate Perception Magazine:,


Founding members of UFO Study Group November 1967 4-24-2017 1;25;37 PM.jpg new
Steve Erdmann – on left – 1967 – 
Independent Investigative Journalist

ThePsychrophiles Humanoid 200px-Alienigena
Humanoid depicted at Roswell, New Mexico, 1947
The Psychrophiles akhenaten-depiction_g5ad
Statue of Akhenaten – Akhenaten ascended to the throne as the 10th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty in 1352 B.C. He is depicted in paintings and carvings with an elongated skull, which some ancient alien theorists see as a sign of extraterrestrial heritage.
The Psychrophiles towerofbabel
“The storied tower of Birs Nimrud counts seven of these quadrangular platforms painted in seven colors, black, white, yellow, blue, scarlet, silver and gold, and in the same order sacred to the stellar gods, Adar (Saturn), Ishtar (Venus), Merodach (Jupiter), Nebo (Mercury), Nergal (Mars), Sin (the Moon), Shamash (the Sun).”
The Psychrophiles nasa-ready-to-launch-ufo-flying-saucer-shaped-low-density-supersonic-decelerator-ldsd-rocket
Artist’s rendering of the proposed Mars Transfer Vehicle that would use NTR
The Psychrophies archaeon 1-s2.0-S0005272814000917-gr1
Universal phylogenetic tree of life based on 16S rRNA sequences, emphasizing the domains of Bacteria and Archaea. Orange branches indicate hyperthermophiles that grow at ≥90 °C; purple branches, groups that contain known (cultured) psychrotolerant strains; and blue branches, groups that contain known psychrophiles. Note that the (uncultured) marine Crenarchaeota are colored purple because degree of cold adaptation is not known.
The Psychrophiles Bugs bugs_2a
Permafrost Life- Coldest Living Organisms – Cryptoendoliths
Extremophilic microbes are a wild bunch. They can be found thriving in some of the most hostile environments imaginable – swimming in near-boiling water, eating rocks, lounging in sub-zero temperatures, and hanging out where radiation levels rival nuclear reactors.
The Psychrophiles Ocean blastomussa-coral-fluorescent-vojce-shutterstock_1024
Organisms Found in Deepest Part of  Ocean 
The benthic zone includes the entire sea floor. About 200,000 species of plants and animals live here. They live on the continental shelf and continental slope. Hydrothermal vents discovered in 1977 are also teeming with life. These plants and animals do not need sunlight to exist.
The Psychrophiles Tough DSC-CR0916_08
Tardigrades are a class of microscopic animals with eight limbs and a strange, alien-like behavior. William Miller, a leading tardigrade researcher at Baker University, says these creatures are remarkably abundant. Hundreds of species “are found across the seven continents; everywhere from the highest mountain to the lowest sea,” he says. “Many species of tardigrades live in water, but on land, you find them almost everywhere there’s moss or lichen.”  In 2007, scientists discovered that these microscopic critters can survive an extended stay in the cold, irradiated vacuum of outer space. A European team of researchers sent a group of living tardigrades to orbit the earth on the outside of a FOTON-M3 rocket for ten days.  When the water bears returned to Earth, the scientists discovered that 68 percent lived through the ordeal.
The Psychrophiles Zacharia-Sitchin
Zecharia Sitchin, Supporter of Planet Nibiru and of the Anunnaki
The Psychrophiles Shaver and Palmer download
Richard Sharpe Shaver and publisher Ray A. Palmer

Raymond Arthur Palmer

Editor of Amazing Stories from 1938 through 1949

Prolific science fiction editor and author

Palmer was hit by a truck at age seven and suffered a broken back. At nine, a failed spinal graft left him a hunchback who never grew past four feet. He immersed himself in science fiction, moving quickly from fandom, to fan zine publication, to editor at Ziff-Davis. He published a wide array of magazines over the decades.

He also turns up in many of the key UFO connected conspiracy events of the mid 20th century such as the Maury Island Incident

Ray Palmer’s series of Amazing Stories on the Hidden World 
The Hidden Underworld

The Psychrophiles Antarctica Meduza-Atolla

Diplulmaris antarctica
Jellyfish species Diplulmaris Antarctica floats with the current just offshore of McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica. This species is generally found in Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula near the surface in continental shelf waters. It’s colorless umbrella can be up to 18 centimeters in diameter and its diet consists mainly of copepods, euphausiid larvae, medusae, ctenophores, fish larvae and molluscan pteropods.
The Psychrophiles Art MDJackson_Shaver_5-200x300
The Shaver Mystery is part of the history of Amazing Stories Magazine, but it is certainly not considered one of the magazine’s shining moments.  Barry Malzberg touched on it briefly in his blog post. In a nutshell, the Shaver Mystery was the “UFO phenomenon” before the actual UFO phenomenon.
The Psychrophiles lots-wife-1
The Vaporization of Lot’s Wife
The Psychrophiles sodomslide2
The City of Bab Edh Dhra – was it destroyed by an Atomic Blast?
The Psychrophiles mohenjo skeletons
Some were laid out as if in an Aerial Blast
The Psychrophiles 111128_GR_pyramidFW.jpg.CROP.original-original
The Pyramids as a Grand Communication Tool
The Psychrophiles Gold xg5416e38a
The Anunnaki had a Medicinal Use for Gold
The Psychrophiles Wraith_attack
They came – They saw – They conquered!

A Beautiful Mind” – Actor Richard Crowe (John Nash) Contemplates the Uncharted Designs in Crystal Glass and Fellow Classmate’s Tie.
The Psychrophiles Tie abm01
“There has to be a mathematical explanation for how bad your tie is.”
John Nash (Richard Crowe) Speculating on Little Noticed Mathematical Designs in Movie A Beautiful Mind.
Photos Extra Planet X 383_planet_9_art_1_1400
Artist Conception of Planet X

A simlar article can be seen at

CORONA UNMASKED: Chinese Intelligence Officer Reveals True Magnitude of China’s Fake Coronavirus Crisis – 包含中文字符版本

CORONA UNMASKED: Chinese Intelligence Officer Reveals True Magnitude Of China’s Fake “Coronavirus” Crisis

Posted on   CORONA UNMASKED: Chinese Intelligence Officer Reveals True Magnitude of China’s Fake “Coronavirus” Crisis

Image result for chinese military intelligence officer ~ ROBERT MORNINGSTAR


Chinese Intelligence Officer Reveals True Magnitude of China’s Fake “Coronavirus” Crisis

By  Pen Name U  u/WuhanvirusDispersal

Edited by  明亮晨星


I am a senior Chinese military intelligence officer and I know the truth about the “coronavirus” outbreak.  It is far worse than the media are telling you.

I am a Chinese citizen in Wuhan who occupies — or perhaps occupied — a high-ranking position in military intelligence.  I am also a member of the Chinese Communist Party. As a senior official near the top of the Party, I have access to a great deal of classified information and I have been involved in many top secret government projects.  I have a doctorate from a leading university in a western country, which is why I am able to write my account in English.

I have information that I believe could lead to the overthrow of my government.  It is also relevant to billions of people outside of China, all of whom are now in existential peril.

It will not surprise you to hear that if my identity were to be revealed, my life would be in grave danger, as would those of my wife and son.  I ask you to respect the fact that I have stripped out of this account all facts that would make it easy to identify me.

By now you will be familiar with the recent outbreak of 2019-nCoV, also known as NCP, or simply “coronavirus”. You will have heard that it originated in Wuhan, an industrial city in China, and that it came from an animal — most likely a bat or a pangolin — that was sold in a wild animal market.  You will have been told that it is an influenza-like illness that can in severe cases cause pneumonia, respiratory failure and death.

Finally, you may have heard that although the disease is highly infectious, it is dangerous only to the elderly or to those who have a compromised immune system.  The official lethality rate is approximately  2% or so.

All of that is a bunch of lies concocted by the Chinese state with the tacit support of the U.S. deep state and its friends in the European Union, Russia and Australia, and spread by the docile media in all of those countries.

Let me start by telling you that the world does not operate the way you think it does. Although countries like the US and China vie for global dominance, that competition is restricted to certain limited areas.

In most ways, the two countries are more interested in cooperation so that they can stop other competing countries from gaining more power.  They also have a shared interest in keeping real power out of the hands of their “ordinary” citizens. To this end, they have many different mechanisms by which they control the overwhelming majority of their media outlets.  The Americans in particular have perfected the art of creating made-up “divisions” between their two main parties which are designed to hide the fact that both serve the same masters.

These same nations also posses technology that is far more advanced than you can imagine and which is kept carefully hidden from public view.  This includes advanced artificial intelligence capable of undermining and deciding any election in the world; biological and chemical agents that can manipulate and control the thinking patterns and behaviours of citizens to terrifying degrees; highly sophisticated manipulation techniques using hypnotic practices entirely unknown to the public; and other things that I will not go into now.


My point is that the great nations do not compete so much as work together. Their principal goal is to shield the true workings of the world from the “uninitiated” public.

Just to give you one example, there aren’t actually any nuclear weapons anywhere in the world.  The U.S. and the Soviet Union scrapped them all in the 1970s, as did their client states.  Everyone realized that those weapons could not be used without destroying the whole world, so there was no need for them; but by pretending that they still had them, the big players were able to keep the non-nuclear powers in line.

Let me return to the virus.

Last year, large-scale anti-government protests erupted in Hong Kong.

The Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party considered these to be a grave threat to the integrity and stability of the motherland.  The U.S. government and the EU both knew that the Chinese were secretly working on a biological agent that was supposed to make the protesters docile and obedient.  Without going into detail, I worked on that project.  We tried to develop a sort of spray that could be dispersed from helicopters or drones and that would lead to mental retardation and behavioural change.

Naturally, as Hong Kong is one of the most open and international cities in the world, the Party decided that it was too risky to release the agent in Hong Kong without first testing it.  For this, it needed a great number of human guinea pigs. Two groups were identified for this.

First, we rounded up a large number of so-called “islamic radicals” in Xinjiang Province and took them to what we called “training camps.”

We had already been using these camps for human experimentation for several years, but the Hong Kong protests meant that we redoubled our efforts.  We exposed the inmates to various “alpha” experimental agents.  As these were odourless and invisible, the subjects were not aware that they were taking part in medical trials.

Image result for uighurs in china

Escape from Xinjiang:  Muslim Uighurs Speak of China Persecution

The resulting high rates of cancer, premature dementia, suicidal depression and death by organ failure could easily be suppressed, as the camps are located in very remote parts of our motherland.

Once the initial experiments had yielded a “beta” agent, it was transported to Hubei Province, where it was deployed in a special military testing facility outside the city of Wuhan.  This was not even a particularly well-kept secret: the existence of this facility has been reported in international news.  Even the fact that it is located close to the wild animal market is a known fact.

By then our President had already introduced a “social credit” system that allowed us to identify disloyal, counter-revolutionary and bourgeois elements in our society.  Using the social credit scores — which are taken from online activity, electronic shopping behaviour and reports from informers in civil society — we selected some of the worst offenders.  These included human rights lawyers and activists, Christians, homosexuals, artists, intellectuals, people who speak foreign languages, and other undesirables.

Once these troublemakers had been collected and placed in the testing facility, we exposed them to the Agent, which is biochemical in nature and spread in an invisible aerosol, akin to certain viruses.  Initial results were encouraging, as we saw significant cognitive decline and reduction in higher mental processing facilities.  Essentially, our undesirables were becoming mildly mentally disabled, which is precisely the effect we wanted to produce in order to pacify the restive population of Hong Kong.

Image result for hong kong riots

Unfortunately, it quickly became apparent that the Agent also had other effects. About one week after the retardation set in, our subjects developed major anxiety and panic attacks.  Eventually they developed symptoms akin to those of paranoid schizophrenics.  At that point, their bodies rapidly deteriorated.  They developed massive internal bleeding; the walls of their arteries dissolved; they bled out of their eyes and orifices, and their tissue disintegrated.

To put it in a more direct Western manner, they started to melt.

Death usually occurred through multiple organ failure.  This was preceded by at least five days of severe agony which could not be alleviated by painkillers.  It was at this time that I first violated our protocol: one subject, an elderly lady who had published defamatory cartoons of our President, begged me for death with such insistence that I took pity and shot her.  I was reprimanded, but fortunately the complaint was dropped when I agreed to reimburse the cost of the bullet. I swore to myself never again to show such unnecessary emotion.

We decided that our Agent was unusable.  It was far too destructive for our purposes.  We wanted the population of Hong Kong to submit to us; we did not want to exterminate it.

Image result for hong kong riots

Naturally, our American friends had by then taken an interest in our work and asked us for a sample for their own research and testing purposes.  They hinted that they wished to use it to resolve certain difficulties in Venezuela.  Normally we would have agreed, as we maintain friendly relations with the CIA, but given the extremely toxic nature of the Agent, we declined.

This, as it turned out, was a grave mistake.  The CIA was convinced that we had developed something very powerful and wanted to keep it to ourselves.  They offered a great deal of money to one of our researchers.

Foolishly, he agreed to sell them a specimen.  We found out just in time for the handover and tried to stop it from happening.  In the ensuing shoot-out — don’t bother to look for it in the news, it was never reported anywhere — several dozen people were killed.

More importantly, however, the Agent escaped!

The shoot-out took place at the wild animal market, which has been reported as the location of the “animal-to-human” transmission that started the outbreak.  But, of course, there was no such transmission; it was just the location where the CIA was supposed to receive the sealed vial containing the Agent.  The vial shattered when it was dropped by the traitor who had agreed to sell it to the Americans.

By now I understand you will be sceptical.  If I really am who I say I am, why would I be sharing this information on the internet?

Let me assure you that I am no friend of the Western system of governance. I love my motherland and I am loyal to the Communist Party.  It has lifted hundreds of millions of my compatriots out of squalor and poverty.  However, I am also a human being and I have a conscience.

Most importantly, I have a wife and a son.

Once we realised that the Agent had escaped and would start to spread, we swiftly put all of Wuhan into lockdown. I was one of those tasked to manage the fallout of the contamination.

Of course, we could not keep such a huge undertaking secret, so we decided to order our state media to report that a “coronavirus” had broken out in Wuhan.

In reality, of course, there is no “coronavirus”. It was all made up.

It was one of my colleagues who came up with the genius idea of pretending that people with the common flu suffered from the coronavirus. This allowed us to hide the true nature of the disease. Let me explain.

It is currently flu season in China. When we realised that we could no longer control the spread of the Agent, we sent our men to all the hospitals and instructed all doctors to diagnose every case of the common flu as “coronavirus”. We came up with a new name — 2019-nCoV — and handed out “factsheets” that described a made-up illness.

The result of this decision was that tens of thousands of individuals who were simply suffering from a cold or flu were now diagnosed as having a mysterious coronavirus that, although infectious, was not often lethal.  While this frightened the public, it allowed us to push the narrative that the disease was not that deadly; it also gave us time to prepare for the catastrophe that was sure to come by imposing a lockdown on Wuhan and other cities in Hubei Province.

You have not heard this in the news — and given the size of Wuhan, with its population of 11 million, it is not known even to many of the residents — but within days thousands upon thousands were infected and before long they suffered the agonising deaths that I have already described.

Within a week, there were so many corpses that we did not know what to do with them, so we ordered the surviving social credit prisoners to drive the bodies into the countryside and bury them in mass graves.

But it was very difficult to keep this activity secret, and we could not even keep up as there were so many corpses.People’s Daily, China


Full-front disinfection work has started in #Wuhan, an effort to contain the spread of #coronavirus

Embedded video

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We planted a story that five million residents had “fled” Wuhan.  In reality, of course, many of those people had died from the Agent.

I was working around the clock helping to orchestrate this cover-up.  When I think back to my actions now, I feel great shame.  At the time I still believed that I was fighting for my motherland and that the rule of the Party was right and just. But deep down, I had already begun to have doubts.

My faith in the Party was shaken even more deeply when I learnt what had happened to Dr Li Wenliang.

Li Wenliang: Doctor who warned about coronavirus outbreak dies after being infected by virus

Whistleblower who was confronted by police becomes latest victim of deadly outbreak

Dr Li Wenliang was one of the few doctors who refused falsely to diagnose flu patients with the “coronavirus”.  As a punishment, he was sent to help transport dead bodies to mass graves.  The expectation was that he would be infected with the Agent and die an agonising death, but to our great surprise, he did not contract the illness.

You have of course read that he died of “coronavirus.”  You have been misinformed.  A sergeant of the People’s Armed Police injected him with a mixture of heroin and mercury that caused his lungs to deflate.

When I found out about this I became unsure whether or not I was doing the right thing.  While I believe that it is appropriate for a government to rule with a severe hand, I do not think that it was right to kill Dr Li.  He was a compassionate and kind man and he cared about his patients; how can our motherland not benefit from having such a doctor?

I shared my concerns with my wife, but she convinced me that I should not say anything to my superiors.  She said that it was too dangerous; that they valued loyalty above everything else; and that I would only find trouble if I admitted to my doubts about their practices.  She also pointed out that we benefited from priority medical treatment.  As senior officials, we received regular supplies of the highly-sophisticated hazmat masks that are the only known technology that can prevent infection.   She implored me to think of our son, who is still small.  If I spoke out and were caught, our lives would be at risk.

Around the same time, it became clear that the Agent was entirely beyond our control.  It was spreading like wildfire throughout Hubei Province and beyond, infecting tens of millions and causing them all to die.

I understand that what I just said is difficult to believe, because you have been told that there have been only about 50,000 infections, and far fewer deaths.

But these are the influenza infections that have been falsely passed off as the non-existent “coronavirus.”  The Agent is far, far more contagious than that, and its fatality rate, unlike the “coronavirus”, is not 2%.

No, its fatality rate is 100%.  Nobody recovers from it.  Everybody who contracts it dies.

And a lot of people are contracting it.

Hubei Province lies in ruins. The various travel restrictions and lockdowns that have been imposed were not created to stop the spread of the Agent — none of them can stop it, not embargoes, not face masks or hand sanitiser — but to stop the survivors from seeing the catastrophe with their own eyes.

                                                                                                                                                      Drones are being used to heard people toward -containment centers.

I am part of the greatest cover-up in human history: the hiding of the deaths of tens of millions. Very soon, Hubei Province will be no more than a giant mortuary, and the truth will come out.

For me, the turning point came when the Party told yet another lie, and that lie was too dreadful even for me to accept.

You may have heard that China built a new hospital, called Huoshenshan Hospital, in Wuhan, in order to provide additional quarantine and isolation facilities for infected patients.  You may have heard that they built it in only ten days.

That too is a lie.

Sure, they did build something in six days.  But it was not a “hospital. ”  The true nature of the building was considered “top secret.”

Initially, I was naive enough to believe that the Party was demonstrating its compassion and care for the people.  But then my superiors sent me to Huoshenshan.

I was shown around the installation by a military police officer called Corporal Meng (this is not his real name).  It was there that I saw the truth.

As I have mentioned, the only way to protect oneself from the Agent is by wearing a special protective mask that is entirely unlike those available commercially. Even medical professionals do not have access to it.  It is available only to biomedical warfare researchers and it contains extremely advanced technology.

These masks need to be kept at a particular temperature to offer full protection, and lose their effectiveness very quickly.  As I have also already said, one of the benefits of my position was that both my family and I had access to regular supplies, which is why were safe when compared to civilians, doctors and even lower-level government officials, all of whom wore utterly ineffective surgical masks in the misguided belief that they would protect them.

And so, wearing this special equipment, I went to Huoshenshan with Corporal Meng.

Whatever you want to call that place, it is not a hospital.

Sure, the entrance looks like a hospital and in the ward at the front of the complex, there are what appear to be normal medical beds.  There, thousands of infected patients lie, all of them in the early stages of the disease.  I walked along those long, white corridors next to Corporal Meng, his angular face dispassionate in his military fatigues, and saw hundreds upon hundreds of identical hospital beds on which squirmed the terrified and diseased inhabitants of Wuhan.  Their cries and pleas haunt me in the long nights in which I now am unable to sleep.

But this was merely the beginning.  Eventually the Corporal took me to the rear of this front section.  There, locked metal gates led to what he called the “middle section”.  The patients in the front are unaware of its existence.  It is there that the more advanced cases are kept, in what most closely resembles a mental asylum.

Immediately upon entering this part of Huoshenshan, I was struck by the dim lighting and stench of vomit and human waste.  Here the unfortunates roamed freely, their minds gradually disintegrating in endless panic attacks and psychotic episodes.  Here too there were no more doctors, merely gorilla-faced men in black uniforms who belonged to some secret branch of the military police I had never heard of.

They appeared to have been selected for their cruelty, for they beat and degraded the patients in the most sadistic manner.  Many of the inmates had regressed to childlike states and lay on the floor weeping like infants and begging for compassion that they did not receive.

There was cruel pleasure in the eyes of these thugs as they brutalised the unfortunates.  They beat them with batons, sprayed pepper spray into their eyes and kicked them with their steel-capped boots.  As I was from military intelligence, the guards did not even attempt to hide their activities.  They even invited me to join; in every way, they treated me as one of them.

Yes, one of them.  I stood in the grey staff bathroom of Huoshenshan and looked into a cheap mirror and asked myself — is this really what you are? Are you really like them?

But the violence was not merely an expression of sadism, for the poor inmates were not there to be cared for.

They were there to work.

There was one more set of doors, and beyond them lay what the Corporal called the “Core.”  And it was there that I saw it — piles and piles of dead bodies, stacked on top of one another all the way to the ceiling.  There were men, women and children, elderlies and toddlers, rich and poor, beautiful and misshapen, proud and humble.

They were all of them dead.  Our Agent made no distinction between any of them.

I gasped when the Corporal led me to the Core.  I cannot count how many there were, but it was many, many thousands.  And in the midst of the piles of corpses was a kind of path, and I heard a roaring sound in the distance.  The miserable patients from the middle section picked up the dead and carried and dragged them away into the dark, even as the guards beat them with truncheons.

It took me a little while before I grasped what was happening.  I simply could not believe what lay at the end of that path in the Core.

It was an enormous furnace, with great fires roaring within.

One by one, their minds destroyed and their bodies twisted, the dying men and women carried the corpses to the furnace and cast them inside in a doomed attempt to hide the dreadful truth.  I saw several of them collapse from exhaustion only for their lifeless bodies to be added to the mountains of corpses on both sides.  In a seemingly endless line they went, their emaciated bodies clad in grey overalls, their backs bent under the weight of their dreadful cargo.  Many howled and groaned in terror and their voices joined in a sorrowful cacophony that lingered over the roar of the fires.

In deep shock, I stared at the boundless horror before me.  Beside me stood Corporal Meng, his freshly-shaved face as emotionless as before.  When I turned to face him, he looked at me.  His mouth smiled, but his eyes did not.

“We use the energy to operate Huoshenshan,” he said. “We save the state considerable resources in this way.  And look,” — he waved at the gallery of the dead — “there are so many of them here.  You could almost describe it as renewable energy.”  He laughed and waved his hand in a strangely camp gesture.

I stood speechless and stared at the infernal scenes before me.  Men in black uniforms screamed like daemons at the wretches who were disposing of the corpses for them.  They stripped the dead of anything that had value — jewellery, cash, expensive clothing — and tossed these items onto an enormous pile next to the furnace.  When I asked the Corporal what would be done with the items, they said that they would be used to pay for the “healthcare expenses” incurred by the patients’ stay in Huoshenshan.

I vomited in the toilet.  When I flushed and came out of the stall, Corporal Meng stood by the door and looked at me.  His face was as blank as before, but in his eyes I thought I registered a very faint trace of contempt.  You are ten years my senior, the look said, but you are soft.

I thanked him for his service and went home.

When I arrived, I saw that I had received hundreds of updates on the encrypted device the Party uses to communicate to insiders.  The news were unimaginably grim.  The State Legal and Economic Commission had allocated funds for the construction of dozens of facilities like Huoshenshan all throughout China.

The Agent had spread not only to every single province of the motherland, but to most other nations in the world. Fortunately, we had agreements in place with other governments — they agreed to pretend that the infections were due to a coronavirus.  They were just as worried as we were that a panic might break out in their countries.  The Americans, in particular, were terrified that the S&P 500 might decline.  This, they said, would be unacceptable in an election year, so we could count on their full support.

Of course the World Health Organisation also helped us.  For a long time, the only issue with the WHO has been that we have been locked in a contest with the Americans about who bribes them more.  They released all sorts of sophisticated misinformation about having decoded the DNA of the so-called coronavirus.  All this has allowed us to stave off a global panic.

For now.

Yet the situation was worsening with astonishing speed.  I am reluctant to reveal too much on this point, as it would make it too easy for my enemies to identify me, but we quickly began to implement measures to protect our most senior leaders.  If you look at the world news, you will see that Xi Jinping, our President, disappeared for approximately one week after the outbreak, before being seen again with the leader of Cambodia.

You should know that the person who met the Cambodian leader was not President Xi.  It was a body double who had, for many years, been trained to look and sound just like our President.  President Xi is of course not careless enough to risk his own death.  He is safely ensconced in a secret bunker underneath Zhongnanhai, the headquarters of the Party in Beijing.

Nor was he the only leader who is in hiding.  In fact, I can assure you that over half of all senior Party members are currently being imitated by trained actors who are following instructions given to them via special implants.

Do you really think that our Prime Minister would risk his life by going to Wuhan?

All of this means that our government has become utterly paralysed and the functions of the state have been taken over by the military.

It became clear to me that our efforts were pointless.  Yes, the lockdowns, travel bans and targeted assassinations of rebellious journalists allowed us to hide the true situation in Wuhan; but I knew that this would not last.

Once the mass deaths begin in the rest of the world — in our estimation, this should happen within the next week or so — everyone will know the truth.  It will become clear that we cannot protect ourselves from the Agent.

Surgical masks, hand sanitiser, gloves — nothing can stop it.  Nothing except the special hazmat masks, but those cannot be produced in anything like sufficient quantities.  You, an ordinary person, will never even receive one, let alone a sufficient number to see you through the coming holocaust.

For those of you reading this, therefore, all I can suggest is that you keep your loved ones close to you.  Hug them, tell them what they mean to you.  Enjoy the time you have left with them.  It is not typical in Chinese culture to express one’s feelings in this way, but I have learnt the importance of such gestures.

I promised my wife that I would show this document to her before I posted it.

Yet I broke my word.

I hear her weep in loud, hoarse sobs in the bedroom, and the keyboard of my laptop is wet with my own tears.  Not long ago, we received results of the regular tests that are part of our “priority medical treatment”, and we learnt that my son had been infected with the Agent.

The military police that has supplied me with the special protective mask had been giving expired and ineffective masks to my son, masks that senior officials had already worn and then discarded when they ceased to protect them.   My own masks, on the other hand, had always been of the necessary quality.

I suppose they decided that my son was of lower priority than me. I suppose my son could not help them with their cover-up.

We had long ago decided that we would be different — we would be honest with him, always.  And so when he asked us, we told him the truth. We told him that he was very sick.  He asked more, and we told him he would not get better.

He continued asking, and we told him that he would die.  He is very small, but he was old enough to understand.

His terrified wails will haunt me for the rest of my miserable days in this world.

Let them come.  Let them do with me as they will. I no longer care.




Editor’s Postscript

Here is the True Face of Communism.

The videolinked below shows scenes from Wuhan, China, and graphically supports all the assertions made by the anonymous Chinese Military Intelligence Officer presented above.

The viewer should “Cut to the chase” at the 54 minute Time Mark to see what’s really going on in Red China, emphasis on “Red” as in “bloody China.”These scenes show the ruthlessness of the Chinese Police conducting forced detainment of people suspected of having the Corona Flu.enforcing. Even pets are being thrown out of windows on rumors that pets are spreading the disease (not true).This video also shows clear evidence of intentional contamination and spreading of disease as seen in the elevator with Chinese operatives spitting on tissue and smearing it on elevator buttons, as well as, people spitting in food containers and into food service centers.The following video images reveal the real face of Chinese Communism, which has become today the worst “Death Cult” ever known in the long history of Mankind.





Go to the 54 minute Time Mark to get a glimpse of

“Hell on Earth”–90EKIMbT0dN3WmXVWSLPRe24qwVgIK369u4tE0O63AdyjOczfPk

A Harvard Professor, The DOD & NIH, A Chinese Spy, 21 Stolen Vials Of “Biological Research”, & Nanoscience

Here are some dots in desperate need of connecting, even if the DOJ says it’s all “separate”. Oh yeah, and they tie into the Wuhan University of Technology…

From the DOJ:

Harvard University Professor and Two Chinese Nationals Charged in Three Separate China Related Cases
The Department of Justice announced today that the Chair of Harvard University’s Chemistry and Chemical Biology Department and two Chinese nationals have been charged in connection with aiding the People’s Republic of China.

Dr. Charles Lieber, 60, Chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard University, was arrested this morning and charged by criminal complaint with one count of making a materially false, fictitious and fraudulent statement. Lieber will appear this afternoon before Magistrate Judge Marianne B. Bowler in federal court in Boston, Massachusetts.

Yanqing Ye, 29, a Chinese national, was charged in an indictment today with one count each of visa fraud, making false statements, acting as an agent of a foreign government and conspiracy. Ye is currently in China.

Zaosong Zheng, 30, a Chinese national, was arrested on Dec. 10, 2019, at Boston’s Logan International Airport and charged by criminal complaint with attempting to smuggle 21 vials of biological research to China. On Jan. 21, 2020, Zheng was indicted on one count of smuggling goods from the United States and one count of making false, fictitious or fraudulent statements. He has been detained since Dec. 30, 2019. CHARACTER VERSIONOF“CORONA-UnMasked”


Edited byRobert D. Morningstar


Image result for chinese military intelligence officer



u / Wuhanvirusthrowaway




我是中国军事情报高级官员,我知道“冠状病毒”爆发的真相。 这比媒体告诉你的要糟糕得多。我是武汉的中国公民, 在军事情报领域担任高级职位。我也是中国共产党的成员。作为接近党的最高层的高级 官员,我可以获得大量的机密信息,并且参与了许多最高机密的政府项目。 我拥有西方国家一流大学的博士学位,这就是为什么

我能够用英语写我的帐户的原因。 我掌握的信息可能会导致我的政府被推翻。这也与中国境外数十亿人息息相关, 他们现在都面临着生存的危险。 听到我的身份被揭露,我的生命和我妻子和儿子的生命将面临极大的危险, 这不会让你感到惊讶。我要求您尊重我已经从该帐户中删除所有易于识别我的事实。 到目前为止,您将熟悉最近爆发的2019-nCoV(也称为NCP)或简称为“冠状病毒”。 您会听说它起源于中国的工业城市武汉,并且来自一种在野生动物市场上出售的动物 -最有可能是蝙蝠或穿山甲。 您会被告知这是一种类似于流感的疾病,在严重的情况下会导致肺炎,呼吸衰竭和死亡。 最后,您可能已经听说,尽管该疾病具有很高的传染性,但仅对老年人或免疫系统受损 的人才有危险。官方的致死率约为2%左右。 所有这些都是中国国家在美国深层国家及其在欧盟,俄罗斯和澳大利亚的朋友的默契支 持下炮制的一堆谎言,并由温顺的媒体在所有这些国家传播。


比赛仅限于某些特定区域。在大多数方面,两国对合作更感兴趣,因此它们可以阻止其 他竞争国家获得更大的权力。他们也有共同的利益,就是将真正的权力掌握在“普通”公 民的手中。为此,他们拥有许多不同的机制来控制绝大多数媒体。尤其是美国人, 已经完善了在两个主要政党之间建立人为“分工”的艺术,这是为了掩盖双方都担任同 一大师的事实。 这些国家/地区还拥有比您想像的要先进得多的技术, 并且应谨慎地将其隐藏在公众视野之外。 这包括能够破坏和决定世界上任何选举的先进人工智能; 可以操纵和控制公民思维方式和行为的恐怖程度的生物和化学制剂; 使用完全不为公众所知的催眠方法的高度复杂的操纵技术; 和其他我现在不会讨论的事情。










Untold Secrets of Manzano Underground Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico – – Fact or Fiction?

A Typical UFO Seen Over New Mexico

Untold Secrets of Manzano Underground Base

in Albuquerque, New Mexico

Fact or Fiction?

By Norio Hayakawa

<Edited by Robert D. Morningstar>


The Manzano Underground Base is Reportedly Situated Beneath this Mountain.
This view is the Northeast end of the Manzano underground base with 3 tiers of electric fences, almost right next to the Four Hills community of Albuquerque –
The Manzano base was supposedly totally closed down in 1992.
Photo by Norio Hayakawa


“I’m a lifelong Albuquerque resident.  I appreciate the work you’ve put into researching and uncovering the various mysterious topics you discuss.”

About three years ago, a close relative of mine, a young man, was working a job as a construction laborer with a local firm, which in 2018 was contracted to do work on KAFB.  He worked that job for about three weeks.  At the time, I didn’t pay much attention to what he told me after coming home from work each evening, but a few years later I took much more interest, due to the nature of his descriptions of what he encountered.

The following is an essay I wrote, based on his direct eyewitness testimony, which also includes my attempts to explain, in the form of hypothesizing, the larger purpose of the facility that he visited.  I call this The Able Prime Narrative; at the time it was built, Manzano Base was known as Site Able.

Aerial View of Kirtland Air Force Base & Manzano UB Area

I’ve tightly held onto this information for some time, but am sharing it with you because it’s one of the most astonishing factual tales I’ve yet encountered, and I trust your judgement in regard to what you might do with this information.  As you undoubtedly know, there are many unverifiable, or unreliable, stories that have circulated through the UFO subculture community.  This story is one of the most factual I’ve encountered, due to the veracity of this young man’s testimony.

The facts as described by this young man, who I call The Eyewitness, are in my view entirely trustworthy; he’s too young and naive to have a deep enough understanding of these things to have made them up, nor has he shown any interest in the past with these topics.  My attempts at explaining what this story implies remains my own speculation, and hence is subject to my own errors of judgement; but his account is by my estimation entirely trustworthy.  I’ve also brought a close friend of mine into confidence of this story, who has, together with me, interviewed The Eyewitness and has verified the veracity of his story and lack of any obvious contradictions or counter-factual information that might compromise the story’s integrity.


Able Prime is based on facts, of an actual eyewitness account from a very reputable source, of an apparent underground complex located within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Able Prime
Photo by Norio Hayakawa, Nov. 17, 2021
This public open space area right next to the fenceline of the base is off-limits to the public after sundown, according to the city ordinance – – Photo by Norio Hayakawa, Nov. 17, 2021)


During the Manhattan Project of WWII, Kirtland Field in Albuquerque, NM was operated by the US Army Air Corp and employed as a point of demarcation for materiel and personnel involved with the build-up of atomic munitions on Tinian Island, in preparation for the atomic bombing raids over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, which directly contributed to the ending of hostilities and unconditional surrender of Japan.

After the war, Z Division of Los Alamos was moved to Kirtland Field and became Sandia Base, a separate entity commanded by a series of US Army and Air Force generals.  The facility rapidly expanded to become the nexus of what is known today as Sandia National Laboratory, the primary center of nuclear weapons development during the Cold War. In 1971, Kirtland Field and Sandia Base were merged into Kirtland AFB.

In the late 1940s a facility began to be constructed inside the mountains on the eastern boundary of Sandia Base that became known as Manzano Base, or Site Able, one of six such sites located around the US built to stockpile the nation’s nuclear weapons arsenal.  Site Able was special in that, not only was it the first such site, but it was the primary assembly facility used to construct the early plutonium fission weapons, based on the WWII Fat Man design, known as the Mark 4.  

The FAT MAN Atomic Bomb

During this time, plutonium and uranium weapons components were cast and machined at Los Alamos, delivered to Sandia Base and assembled, along with non-nuclear components from other facilities, in an underground assembly factory in the Manzano Base.

The Mark 4 design was assembled by hand, in kit form, from discrete blocks of high explosive lenses, upto which detonators and other components were added, to form the completed weapon, minus the core itself, which was only inserted into the weapon during final delivery by bomber aircraft to its target. Assembled weapons were stored in the Manzano facility, minus their cores, which were stored in separate, lead-lined “bird cage” containers.

The overall layout of Manzano and Kirtland AFB proper, including the warehouse entrance on the east side of Manzano, the former Boeing Airborne Laser Hangar, and KUMMSC).


During the height of the Cold War, the existence of Manzano Base was a poorly kept secret among the children of base workers.  It was commonly discussed, on the school grounds in northeast Albuquerque, that a “secret” underground base existed in the Four Hills area of southeast Albuquerque, since many of these children had parents who worked either directly in Manzano Base proper, or on Sandia Base.

In 1992, the Kirtland Underground Munitions and Maintenance Storage Complex (KUMMSC) was activated on KAFB, south and west of the old Manzano Base, and has since become the largest repository of nuclear weapons in the US arsenal.  Since then, stories have been published in the local Albuquerque Journal newspaper about Manzano Base, its former purpose, and how it had since become (supposedly) idled and used only for storage of non-nuclear materiel.

The author has become aware of a book called Raven RockThe Story of the U.S. Government’s Secret Plan to Save Itself – – While the Rest of Us Die“, by Garrett M. Graff, written about the history of the NORAD (North American Air Defense Command) facility, located in Cheyenne Mountain, south of Colorado Springs, Colorado, which indicated that during its design phase a nearly identical mock-up facility was built within the Manzano Base complex, southeast of Albuquerque.

The author is also aware of a firsthand account, from a family friend, an independent contractor skilled in computer networks, who claimed to have been working at an underground computer complex “inside the mountain” directly after the events of September 11, 2001, in a supporting role maintaining computer network equipment.

A closer view of Manzano, with the warehouse entrance on the right and the presumed secondary entrance on the left.   The alignment of the walls of the warehouse point directly to the secondary building.   They are about a mile apart.



The Eyewitness was working for a local construction contractor in the 2018 time frame when a job was issued on KAFB.  He and his crew entered the base from the Louisiana Gate, drove east to Wyoming Blvd, then south and east, past the base golf course, to the security entrance of the Manzano Base complex.  

They were directed to drive on a road around the southern edge of the complex, to the eastern side, where they arrived at a warehouse building with a light-blue roof.  The crew parked in the main parking lot, where they were met by security personnel, who told them to leave all cell phones, electronics and cameras in their truck, and fill out a form describing in detail all of the tools and material they would be bringing into the facility.

Immediately across the loop road from this warehouse building is the entrance to Factory 3, one of three such nuclear assembly factories once located in Manzano.

Having complied with the requests, they were escorted into the building through a door on the west-facing side, where they entered an elevator, that was described by The Eyewitness as of a “wire cage” type freight elevator, whose entrance faced west, toward the mountain, and began their descent that lasted for “three to five minutes.”

Once their three to five minute descent was completed, they exited the elevator in a deep underground, concrete-lined facility that extended into the distance toward the west, under the mountain.

The Eyewitness described the feeling of being in the facility as if one were deep underground inside Carlsbad Caverns, and that it felt cold.

Before them was a long, tall, concrete hallway-like structure that extended into the distance.  The walls were made from large sections of rectangular concrete, embedded with a grid of holes.  The ceiling was as high “as if standing on the basketball court of the UNM Pit arena and looking up to the ceiling.”  

The floor of the structure curved gently upward, in an arc, such that the other end of the facility could not be seen.  To the left of the main hallway were a series of rooms that had been built of metal stud framing, that needed interior finishing work completed.  The freight elevator was used to deliver construction materials, tools and supplies from ground level, down into the facility.

The ceiling of the long hallway was described as “corrugated concrete,” similar to the kind of reinforced concrete structures seen under freeway overpass bridges.  Between the ridges of reinforced concrete were brackets extending downward, from which lighting fixtures were attached.  The Eyewitness estimated the height of the hallway as around 50 feet, and the width about 200 feet.

Parked in two neat rows along either side of the hallway were dozens of aircraft, oriented diagonally facing away from the entrance.  The row of aircraft on the left side had wide, flat jet engine exhaust ducts and a pair of canted vertical stabilizers.  They were dark gray, with no markings other than, under the rear horizontal stabilizers, a sequence of 7 or 8 digits, preceded by the “#” (hashtag or pound) symbol.  There was estimated to be 25-30 of these aircraft visible.

Because of his unfamiliarity with military aircraft, the author showed The Eyewitness a series of aircraft images, from which he identified the YF-23 prototype as being the closest to what he observed.

The row of aircraft on the right side of the structure were parked similarly to those on the left, diagonally facing away from the entrance, and were described as being black and triangular.  There appeared to be an equal number of them as the “YF-23“ type, extending into the distance.

In attempting to identify this second type of aircraft, the author showed The Eyewitness images of the F-117 stealth fighter, but he indicated that the type of aircraft he observed were not shaped with flat facets as with the F-117, but instead were smooth and curved, with a central hump that reminded him of images of the B2 stealth bomber, but smaller and with a triangular plan-form.

In each of his visits to this facility that occurred over a period of three weeks, The Eyewitness and his crew worked on the interior finishing of the office-like rooms to the left of the long hallway.  On the last visit, when they were preparing to exit via the elevator, the security personnel informed them of a “security breach,” and directed them to wait by the elevator while other security teams went topside.  After a period of about 30 minutes they were then permitted to depart via the elevator up to ground level, from where they exited the facility and the base.

Another detail described by The Eyewitness was during the elevator rides, they would periodically pass light fixtures in the concrete elevator shaft, visible through the extruded metal sides of the elevator car, implying a series of other floors or levels in the facility.  However, The Eyewitness did not at the time count the number of floors, but his feeling is that it was dozens of floors, at least.


Whatever facilities are currently situated under the Four Hills of Manzano Base, it is assumed the majority were built in the late-1940s and into the ‘50s, prior to the era of aerial surveillance by high-flying aircraft, or satellite surveillance, hence they may yet possess a higher degree of security than newer-built facilities.  Of specific interest to the author is how such a facility operates, given the implication of deep underground aircraft storage requiring access to both hangars and runways.

Fortunately for the researcher, we live in an era of readily accessible satellite imagery.  The author has examined in detail satellite imagery of KAFB, via Google Earth, and has found circumstantial evidence of specific structural alignments, visible from the surface, that imply possible answers to how the Manzano facility functions.


The Eyewitness described the freight elevator, that connects the surface warehouse building to the underground facility, as being orthagonal with the building’s walls.  Underground, the elevator is also orthagonal with the eastern end of the long hallway-like structure.  In addition, The Eyewitness describes the long hallway as extending straight into the distance, away from the elevator toward the northwest, under the mountain.

Using Google Earth, by extending a datum line from the blue-roofed warehouse building in a northwesterly direction, parallel to its east/west axis, the datum line extends about a mile under the mountain to a position adjacent to the western fence-line of the Manzano area, directly under another warehouse-like building.

It is conjectured by the author that this second building serves as a secondary access point, via elevator, to the western end of the facility, perhaps used as an emergency exit, and perhaps also feeding electrical power to the underground facility, as there appears to be a transformer substation located just adjacent to the north side of this building.

The secondary building, a mile west of the primary, does not share its alignment with the datum line, however.  By properly orienting the walls of the secondary building in Google Earth, another datum line can be extended, parallel to that building’s east/west axis, another three miles to the west, where it intersects almost exactly with an aircraft hangar providing direct access to the runway system of KAFB.

This hangar is itself oriented to the main east/west runway of KAFB, and is the only aircraft hangar on this end of the base, and the closest hangar to the Manzano area complex.  This hangar is the (former) Boeing Airborne Laser facility.

Area marked with yellow (not the arrow) is the Boeing Airborne Laser Facility and Hangar area)

The author conjectures that a three mile-long underground taxiway corridor connects the Manzano facility at the east, to the aircraft hangar three miles west, via an aircraft elevator located under the hangar.

Details of the Boeing ABL hangar, and the William B. Davis Advanced Laser facility adjacent to it.  There’s also Pad 4, to the east, where aircraft are loaded with nuclear weapons from KUMMSC, via the curved road below. 
The alignment of the walls of the secondary building in the middle photo point directly to the Boeing ABL hangar.

Comparing elevation data (available from online topographic maps) between the blue-roofed warehouse building at Manzano (5741 feet above MSL) and the Boeing Airborne Laser hangar (5298 feet above MSL), there is an elevation change of 443 feet.  Assuming the aircraft elevator under the Boeing ABL hangar is, say, 50 feet deep, this implies that the facility below Manzano could be 443 + 50 = 493 feet under the mountain, about consistent with a “3 to 5 minute” ride in a slow-moving freight elevator.

Further examination of KAFB satellite imagery reveals the KUMMSC facility, located south of the datum line connecting Manzano and the hangar, to be aligned almost exactly orthogonal to the same datum line, implying a possible other underground connecting corridor to KUMMSC.


A Nuclear Pitchfork?

The existence of a deep underground aircraft facility, verified by a reliable eyewitness, with no obvious access to runway facilities except via an implied underground corridor and elevator, begs multiple questions.

The depth of the facility, deep under a mountainous installation formerly used to protect nuclear weapons from attack, along with the stealth nature of the aircraft types observed, suggests several possibilities.

Given that these aircraft are not publicly known to exist, their location deep under the protection of a mountain may be to warehouse them for some eventual use, perhaps as some clandestine fourth branch of the nuclear triad; a nuclear pitchfork.  Given their location adjacent to, and aligned with, the KUMMSC nuclear weapons repository, perhaps they would be deployed on some long-distance bombing attack, in the event of assumption of hostilities during a nuclear exchange.

Another possibility is that they are being preserved to provide aerial dominance during a post-nuclear war phase, when the conventional air forces might have been decimated during the conflict.

It is also possible they have already been employed in various conventional conflicts.  Consider KAFB itself.  Sharing a common runway with the civilian Albuquerque International Sunport, civilian air traffic all but disappears late into the evening; meanwhile, air traffic over the rest of New Mexico remains scant during the early morning hours after midnight.  This leaves KAFB open for clandestine flights departing and arriving under the cover of darkness, and a cooperative FAA.  Aircraft can depart, fly long distances via aerial refueling, to arrive at their target coordinates halfway across the globe under the cover of nightfall; then return to KAFB under the cover of the next evening, to be sequestered away, deep under the mountain.

Advanced aircraft require constant maintenance in order to be flightworthy.  Hydraulic and engine systems need to be maintained on a regular basis.  Pilots require constant practice, in simulators and actual aircraft, in order for the weapons system to have any utility in warfare.  It is assumed by the author that periodic clandestine flights must be ongoing from the former Boeing ABL hangar on KAFB, and also that other aircraft facilities  (Edwards AFB, Nellis AFB, etc.)  may be used in training and support of these activities.


The suspect hangar that may contain the terminus of an underground aircraft elevator contains no external visual identification, other than an illegible round sign or plaque above its west-facing employee entrance.  There are, however, a number of vehicles parked in the adjacent parking lot, so some current activity is implied.  Adjacent to the hangar is a smaller, more modern appearing building bearing a sign indicating the Richard W. Davis Advanced Laser Facility.  An Internet search yields negative results for the building itself, but its namesake is an important figure in the early history of the Airborne Laser (ABL) Project.  

In the rear of this building are a number of large compressed gas cylinders and liquid chemical containers, indicating the facility seems to support some degree of advanced laser work; but the size of the building seems too small to support such activity.  It is the author’s conjecture that this laser facility may be largely underground.

It is assumed that this aircraft hangar may have supported the early years of the Airborne Laser project, including housing the early test aircraft, but that this project’s later phases may now be based elsewhere, thus leaving the hangar available for other purposes.  In addition, more recent research has involved solid-state lasers, rather than the chemical COIL (carbon dioxide iodine laser) using in the ABL program.


Given the secretive nature of the Manzano facility, and the history of other projects such as the U2 and A12 aircraft programs, the possibility exists that such facilities are not operated by the overt US Air Force itself, but other, more secretive, agencies. Evidence for this comes from The Eyewitness observing that there were no conventional USAF markings on the aircraft he observed in Manzano. It could be operated by some historically consistent agency such as CIA, or more obscure ones.

It is also possible that some hybrid government/private entity may have taken long term control of the facility, representing a privatization of such “Black” projects.

The facility may have been initially constructed decades ago for other purposes.  Evidence of this is suggested by extending a datum line from the blue-roofed building on the east side of the Manzano complex, past the second structure on the west, continuing several miles to the northwest, which intersects directly with the central complex of Sandia National Laboratory.

Given that it was common in the 1950s to build underground bomb shelters, both privately under single family dwellings and publicly, such as under the UNM campus in Albuquerque, it is likely that an underground access-way may have been built to offer secure egress, from the Sandia area to the shelter of the Manzano complex, in the event of nuclear attack by bomber (in the pre-ICBM era).  This initial connective system may have been extended westward at some later date, to the hangar building, perhaps during the time when KUMMSC was being constructed, which would have offered a convenient cover story to explain the large quantities of earth being excavated during the tunnel’s construction, which would have been visible from satellite surveillance.

It is also logical to suggest that such a deeply protected aircraft facility would have had no purpose before the era of advanced stealth aircraft, since their most vulnerable moments are when parked on the tarmac; locating them underground seems to provide a logical solution in keeping with their stealth nature.

Another question I’ve asked myself is: Why Albuquerque?  Why not, say, Area 51, the National Security Site north of Las Vegas, Nevada?  For one, we don’t know there are not also underground aircraft facilities at Area 51, especially considering Papoose Mountain is located just to the west.  But as indicated previously, Manzano was already build years before the era of satellite surveillance, whereas a newer facility in Nevada would have been observed by satellite while being excavated.  So Manzano provides a “legacy” facility ideal for this purpose.

Additionally, so-called “Janet” flights, of 737 charter aircraft, have to ferry personnel each work day to and from the Nevada National Security Site and the Las Vegas airport; these flights are constantly monitored by enthusiast internet watchers and also, it is assumed, foreign governments.  However, with the Manzano facility no such flights of workers are necessary, since the base is adjacent to the middle-sized city of ABQ and workers can merely drive in and out of KAFB proper.


It is not the intent of the author to reveal the existence of secretive facilities merely for the purposes of notoriety or attention-getting.  The facility, at least what has been directly observed by The Eyewitness, does exist.  At this very moment, advanced aircraft, of a type not supposed to exist, do in fact exist, deep under the Four Hills/Manzano Base area of KAFB, four miles from the nearest runway.  Billions of dollars had to have been expended in its construction, and in the aircraft procurement programs involved, without being leaked to the public through congressional oversight.  

Billions of dollars had to have been diverted from other programs to fund these so-called “black programs.” Entire systems must exist in permanence to support such back-channel funding.  Covert organizations must exist, embedded in other, overt ones, to staff and support such activities.  These implications beg further questions, rather than providing any answers.

Yet, secrecy doesn’t always remain secret.  Facilities must be supported, often by local civilian contractors, who are exposed to things they would not ordinarily see.  Word leaks out, things seen in silence are eventually spoken of, often only in whispers.  Such has been the history of the civilian workforce in New Mexico since the early days of the Manhattan Project.

The author is indebted to the work of Trevor Paglen, who inspired the principle that the covert, black world often leaves a shadow, a footprint, in the everyday world we inhabit, offering mere glimpses of something beyond. It is in that spirit that I offer this work.” – The Eyewitness (NAME WITHHELD)

Norio Hayakawa

Albuquerque, NM

November 15th, 2021



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When we never Learn!

An analysis of a Crisis

Posted on  by steveerdmann      Rate This

Edited by Steve Erdmann

Bibliography of the late, great aftermath of the 2008 financial Wall Street Crisis

In 2008 a financial crisis enveloped America and spread to the world.  We apparently had not learned “our lesson” from previous financial crises. This one involved fancy Wall Street shorts and options and insurance, almost as if “someone” at the “top” –  (“someone[s]”)  –  wanted to play with the markets and make a lot of money – also by controlling – not only the people in America but people all over the world; indeed, like a deadly virus out of a Bruce Willis 1995 Twelve Monkeys movie where James COLE sees 99% of the population whiped out or THE 2011 Rise of the Planet Of The Apes  movie where the 113 serum has a viral effect on humans, whipping out the human race, the 2008 financial crisis also spread around the world.

The following is a cavalcade of events in the news outlining the cause, progression and fruition of that “versus”.

Bradley Keoun and Phil Kuntz – Aug 22, 2011 –  7:19 AM EST

Chief executive officers from eight of the largest U.S. banks receiving government aid testify at a House Financial Services Committee hearing in Washington, D.C on Feb. 11, 2009.

Aug. 22 (Bloomberg) — The Federal Reserve’s unprecedented effort to keep the economy from plunging into depression included lending banks and other companies as much as $1.2 trillion of public money. The largest borrower, Morgan Stanley, got as much as $107.3 billion, while Citigroup Inc. took $99.5 billion and Bank of America Corp. $91.4 billion, according to a Bloomberg News compilation of data obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests, months of litigation and an act of Congress. Erik Schatzker and Sara Eisen report on Bloomberg Television’s “Inside Track.” (Source: Bloomberg)

Aug. 22 (Bloomberg) — Robert Eisenbeis, chief monetary economist at Cumberland Advisors Inc., talks about $1.2 trillion of public money the U.S. Federal Reserve secretly loaned to Wall Street banks and other companies. Eisenbeis, speaking with Mark Crumpton on Bloomberg Television’s “Bottom Line,” also discusses the outlook for Fed monetary policy and the U.S. economy. (Source: Bloomberg)

Aug. 21 (Bloomberg) — Robert E. Litan, a former Justice Department official who in the 1990s served on a commission probing the causes of the savings and loan crisis, now vice president at the Kansas City, Missouri-based Kauffman Foundation, Richard Herring, a finance professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Roger Lister, a former Fed economist who’s now head of financial-institutions coverage at credit-rating firm DBRS Inc., and Kenneth Rogoff, a former chief economist at the International Monetary Fund and now an economics professor at Harvard University, talk about the U.S. government’s $1.2 trillion bailout of the banking system and the outlook for regulatory overhaul of the industry. (Source: Bloomberg)Play Video

Aug. 22 (Bloomberg) — Neil Barofsky, former special inspector general for the Troubled Asset Relief Program and a Bloomberg Television contributing editor, talks about the Federal Reserve’s emergency loans during the financial crisis. Fed Chairman Ben S. Bernanke’s effort to keep the economy from plunging into depression included lending banks and other companies as much as $1.2 trillion of public money, according to a Bloomberg News compilation of data obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests, months of litigation and an act of Congress.  Barofsky speaks with Erik Schatzker on Bloomberg Television’s “Inside Track.” (Source: Bloomberg) Play Video

Aug. 22 (Bloomberg) — Charles Peabody, an analyst at Portales Partners LLC, and Bloomberg reporter Bradley Keoun discuss the Federal Reserve’s emergency lending programs and the capital position of U.S. banks.  They speak with Erik Schatzker and Michael McKee on Bloomberg Television’s “Inside Track.” (Source: Bloomberg)

Wall Street Aristocracy Got $1.2 Trillion From Fed

Citigroup Inc. and Bank of America Corp. were the reigning champions of finance in 2006 as home prices peaked, leading the 10 biggest U.S. banks and brokerage firms to their best year ever with $104 billion of profits.

Citigroup Inc. and Bank of America Corp. were the reigning champions of finance in 2006 as home prices peaked, leading the 10 biggest U.S. banks and brokerage firms to their best year ever

Lloyd Blankfein, CEO of Goldman Sachs; Jamie Dimon, CEO of JPMorgan Chase and Co.; Robert  P.Kelly, CEO of the Bank of New York; Ken Lewis, CEO of the Bank of America; Ronald E. Logue, CEO of State Street; John Mack, CEO of Morgan Stanley; Vikram Pandit, CEO of Citigroup; and John Stumpf, CEO of Wells Fargo, testify during the House Financial Services oversight hearing of the Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP). Two weeks after Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.’s bankruptcy triggered a global credit crisis, Morgan Stanley countered concerns that it might be next to go by announcing it had ‘strong capital and liquidity positions.’

Two weeks after Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.’s bankruptcy triggered a global credit crisis, Morgan Stanley countered concerns that it might be next to go by announcing it had ‘strong capital and liquidity positions.’ A Wall Street sign stands outside the New York Stock Exchange in New York, U.S. The loans dwarfed the $160 billion in public bailouts the top 10 got from the U.S. Treasury, yet until now the full amounts have remained secret.

A Wall Street sign stands outside the New York Stock Exchange in New York, U.S. The loans dwarfed the $160 billion in public bailouts the top 10 got from the U.S. Treasury, yet until now the full amounts have remained secret. Citigroup Inc., along with Morgan Stanley and Citigroup Inc., were the biggest borrowers under seven U.S. Federal Reserve emergency-lending programs.

Citigroup Inc., along with Morgan Stanley and Citigroup Inc., were the biggest borrowers under seven U.S. Federal Reserve emergency-lending programs. The Federal Reserve provided as much as $1.2 trillion in public money to banks and other companies from August 2007 through April 2010 to head off a depression.

The Federal Reserve provided as much as $1.2 trillion in public money to banks and other companies from August 2007 through April 2010 to head off a depression. Source: Bloomberg

Morgan Stanley, along with Citigroup Inc., and Bank of America Corp., were the biggest borrowers under seven Fed emergency-lending programs. The three banks’ combined $298.2 billion in hidden Fed loans was triple what they received in publicly disclosed bailouts from the U.S. Treasury.

Morgan Stanley, along with Citigroup Inc., and Bank of America Corp., were the biggest borrowers under seven Fed emergency-lending programs. The three banks’ combined $298.2 billion in hidden Fed loans was triple what they received in publicly disclosed bailouts from the U.S. Treasury. Bank of America Corp., along with Morgan Stanley and Citigroup Inc. was one of the biggest borrowers under the U.S. Federal Reserve’s emergency-lending programs. The three banks’ combined $298.2 billion in hidden Fed loans was triple what they received in publicly disclosed bailouts from the U.S. Treasury.

Bank of America Corp., along with Morgan Stanley and Citigroup Inc. was one of the biggest borrowers under the U.S. Federal Reserve’s emergency-lending programs. The three banks’ combined $298.2 billion in hidden Fed loans was triple what they received in publicly disclosed bailouts from the U.S. Treasury. The Royal Bank of Scotland took $84.5 billion in loans from the U.S. Federal Reserve’s emergency-lending programs.

The Royal Bank of Scotland took $84.5 billion in loans from the U.S. Federal Reserve’s emergency-lending programs. UBS AG, Switzerland’s biggest bank, got $77.2 billion in loans from the U.S. Federal Reserve’s emergency-lending programs.

UBS AG, Switzerland’s biggest bank, got $77.2 billion in loans from the U.S. Federal Reserve’s emergency-lending programs. Goldman Sachs Group Inc., the fifth-biggest U.S. bank by assets.

Goldman Sachs Group Inc., the fifth-biggest U.S. bank by assets. U.S. Federal Reserve borrowings by Societe Generale SA, France’s second-biggest bank, peaked at $17.4 billion in May 2008, four months after the Paris-based lender announced a record 4.9 billion-euro ($7.2 billion) loss on unauthorized stock-index futures bets by former trader Jerome Kerviel.

months after the Paris-based lender announced a record 4.9 billion-euro ($7.2 billion) loss on unauthorized stock-index futures bets by former U.S. Federal Reserve borrowings by Societe Generale SA, France’s second-biggest bank, peaked at $17.4 billion in May 2008, four trader Jerome Kerviel.

Finance ‘Aristocracy’ Took $1.2 Trillion in Loans

U.S. Federal Reserve borrowings by Societe Generale SA, France’s second-biggest bank, peaked at $17.4 billion in May 2008, four months after the Paris-based lender announced a record 4.9 billion-euro ($7.2 billion) loss on unauthorized stock-index futures bets by former trader Jerome Kerviel.

U.S. Federal Reserve borrowings by Societe Generale SA, France’s second-biggest bank, peaked at $17.4 billion in May 2008, four months after the Paris-based lender announced a record 4.9 billion-euro ($7.2 billion) loss on unauthorized stock-index futures bets by former trader Jerome Kerviel. Citigroup Inc. (C) and Bank of America Corp. (BAC) were the reigning champions of finance in 2006 as home prices peaked, leading the 10 biggest U.S. banks and brokerage firms to their best year ever with $104 billion of profits.

By 2008, the housing market’s collapse forced those companies to take more than six times as much, $669 billion, in emergency loans from the U.S. Federal Reserve. The loans dwarfed the $160 billion in public bailouts the top 10 got from the U.S. Treasury, yet until now the full amounts have remained secret.

Fed Chairman Ben S. Bernanke’s unprecedented effort to keep the economy from plunging into depression included lending banks and other companies as much as $1.2 trillion of public money, about the same amount U.S. homeowners currently owe on 6.5 million delinquent and foreclosed mortgages. The largest borrower, Morgan Stanley (MS), got as much as $107.3 billion, while Citigroup took $99.5 billion and Bank of America $91.4 billion, according to a Bloomberg News compilation of data obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests, months of litigation and an act of Congress.

“These are all whopping numbers,” said Robert Litan, a former Justice Department official who in the 1990s served on a commission probing the causes of the savings and loan crisis. “You’re talking about the aristocracy of American finance going down the tubes without the federal money down the tubes without the federal money.”

Foreign Borrowers

It wasn’t just American finance.

Almost half of the Fed’s top 30 borrowers, measured by peak balances, were European firms. They included Edinburgh-based Royal Bank of Scotland Plc, which took $84.5 billion, the most of any non-U.S. lender, and Zurich-based UBS AG (UBSN), which got $77.2 billion. Germany’s Hypo Real Estate Holding AG borrowed $28.7 billion, an average of $21 million for each of its 1,366 employees.

The largest borrowers also included Dexia SA (DEXB), Belgium’s biggest bank by assets, and Societe Generale SA, based in Paris, whose bond-insurance prices have surged in the past month as investors speculated that the spreading sovereign debt crisis in Europe might increase their chances of default.

The $1.2 trillion peak on Dec. 5, 2008 — the combined outstanding balance under the seven programs tallied by Bloomberg — was almost three times the size of the U.S. federal budget deficit that year and more than the total earnings of all federally insured banks in the U.S. for the decade through 2010, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.

Peak Balance

The balance was more than 25 times the Fed’s pre-crisis lending peak of $46 billion on Sept. 12, 2001, the day after terrorists attacked the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon. Denominated in $1 bills, the $1.2 trillion would fill 539 Olympic-size swimming pools.

The Fed has said it had “no credit losses” on any of the emergency programs, and a report by Federal Reserve Bank of New York staffers in February said the central bank netted $13 billion in interest and fee income from the programs from August 2007 through December 2009.

“We designed our broad-based emergency programs to both effectively stem the crisis and minimize the financial risks to the U.S. taxpayer,” said James Clouse, deputy director of the Fed’s division of monetary affairs in Washington. “Nearly all of our emergency-lending programs have been closed. We have incurred no losses and expect no losses.”

While the 18-month U.S. recession that ended in June 2009 after a 5.1 percent contraction in gross domestic product was nowhere near the four-year, 27 percent decline between August 1929 and March 1933, banks and the economy remain stressed.

Odds of Recession

The odds of another recession have climbed during the past six months, according to five of nine economists on the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research, an academic panel that dates recessions.

Bank of America’s bond-insurance prices last week surged to a rate of $342,040 a year for coverage on $10 million of debt, above where Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (LEHMQ)’s bond insurance was priced at the start of the week before the firm collapsed. Citigroup’s shares are trading below the split-adjusted price of $28 that they hit on the day the bank’s Fed loans peaked in January 2009.

The U.S. unemployment rate was at 9.1 percent in July, compared with 4.7 percent in November 2007, before the recession began.

Homeowners are more than 30 days past due on their mortgage payments on 4.38 million properties in the U.S., and 2.16 million more properties are in foreclosure, representing a combined $1.27 trillion of unpaid principal, estimates Jacksonville, Florida-based Lender Processing Services Inc.

Liquidity Requirements

“Why in hell does the Federal Reserve seem to be able to find the way to help these entities that are gigantic?” U.S. Representative Walter B. Jones, a Republican from North Carolina, said at a June 1 congressional hearing in Washington on Fed lending disclosure.

“They get help when the average businessperson down in eastern North Carolina, and probably across America, they can’t even go to a bank they’ve been banking with for 15 or 20 years and get a loan.”

The sheer size of the Fed loans bolsters the case for minimum liquidity requirements that global regulators last year agreed to impose on banks for the first time, said Litan, now a vice president at the Kansas City, Missouri-based Kauffman Foundation, which supports entrepreneurship research.

 August 24, 2011 – By Keith Fitz-Gerald, Chief Investment Strategist, Money Morning

Lloyd Blankfein, chief executive officer of Goldman Sachs Group Inc. (NYSE: GS), has hired high-profile criminal defense lawyer Reid Weingarten.   This is a game changer even if we don’t yet know where the fire is. Blankfein has led the firm for six years and spent the past two dealing with allegations of conflicts of interest and fraud. A Senate report released in April said Goldman dumped subprime loan exposure onto unsuspecting clients during the mortgage meltdown and then in 2010 gave Congress misleading testimonials about the firm’s actions. So far, Blankfein has not been accused of any crime or crimes. That means, and I cannot stress this strongly enough, that he is innocent in the court of law – even if he is held slightly above pond scum in the court of public opinion for his and Goldman’s role in causing the financial crisis. Under the circumstances, I cannot help but wonder:

Is the U.S. government’s investigation into Go